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Mushrooms with mushrooms

Mushrooms with mushrooms

We mix the two types of flour.

In another bowl, separate the yolk from the egg white.

Heat the milk a little and dissolve the yeast in it.

In the middle of the flour mixture we make a small hole where we put the yolks, salt, milk with yeast and melted butter. Mix well, cover the bowl with a clean towel and let it heat for about 20 minutes.

Until our dough rises, clean the mushrooms and put them in a pan in which we heated the butter together with the oil. Add the finely chopped garlic. We squeeze the lemon all over, to avoid blackening the mushrooms (I used champinion). Let it simmer until the water left by the mushrooms decreases. Season with salt and pepper and sprinkle with chopped green parsley.

The dough has risen so we will beat the egg whites with a pinch of salt and mix them lightly with the rest of the dough.

In a frying pan, heat a little oil and with a spoon take the dough and put it in the pan, stretching a little. Take a tablespoon of the dough until it is full, one tablespoon at a time.

Let it fry for about 2 minutes on one side, turn them over and let them fry again. They are taken from there and drained of oil.

And now we will arrange it like this: a piece of fried dough, we put a good spoonful of sour cream on it and we put mushrooms on top.

It is delicious.



This traditional mushroom stew recipe, passed down from generation to generation, is perfect for any season. Whether you want to add a few pieces of meat or you want to keep it vegetarian, this stew is delicious any preference you have. Its difficulty is low, and the ingredients can be found anywhere, either fresh in the market during the right season, or even preserved at the supermarket in winter. Here's how you can make a mushroom stew in your own kitchen, which you can pass on to future generations!

Ingredients for the mushroom stew:

1 kilogram of Champignon mushrooms
3-4 cloves of garlic
1 medium onion
50 milliliters of tomato juice
1/2 bunch of fresh parsley
1/2 teaspoon salt
freshly ground black pepper
1-2 tablespoons oil

4 steps to prepare mushroom stew:

1. Peel the mushrooms, then cut the stalks. They are finely chopped and the hats are sliced. The garlic is cleaned and finely chopped, and the onion is cleaned, washed and cut into small pieces.

2. In a frying pan, put 1-2 tablespoons of oil, and when the oil is heated, put the onion to harden, until it becomes translucent. Add the finely chopped stalks, leave them to harden, then you can put the sliced ​​mushroom caps and leave for another 2-3 minutes.

3. Add a cup of water or whatever amount of water is needed to cover the mushrooms and bring to a boil over low heat. After boiling, add salt, freshly ground black pepper and finely chopped garlic and simmer for about 10 minutes.

4. Pour the tomato juice, and leave it on the fire for another 10-15 minutes. Meanwhile, wash the fresh parsley and finely chop. Add when the preparation is ready and mix. Serve with hot or cold polenta, according to preference.


Mushroom dumplings - Recipes

I was going to have guests at the table. I decided to do it stars with telemea. They didn't work out for me. I do not know why. Don't ask me. I have no idea. I could only see the minutes go by and how I shuddered. And then I decided: I inaugurate the pan for the pancakes! I did it. The outcome: Miniclatite with cheese!

AndIngredients for Miniclatite with cheese

  • 300ml milk,
  • 2 eggs,
  • 125 gr flour,
  • a tablespoon of oil,
  • cheese

Preparation for Miniclatite with cheese

Mix the yolk very well with the milk, a tablespoon of oil and then pour the flour in the rain, stirring constantly so as not to form lumps. It would be best to use the blender.

Then add the beaten egg whites, stirring slowly with the whisk, to incorporate. In principle, it is about the classic composition of pancakes, only that the dough should be a little thicker, something like a country cream, thick and pasty.

Heat the pan for the dumplings, grease with a little oil, put 2 tablespoons of the composition in each gaoace, turn the pan skillfully to spread the composition perfectly in each gaoace and bake for a few minutes on each side, just like the usual pancakes.

Take them out on a flat plate, keep warm. Put a teaspoon of small grated telemea and roll.


Fasting pies with mushrooms and spinach

To prepare these fasting pies with mushrooms and spinach, we do not need many ingredients. It is not a pretentious recipe and I am sure that you already have all the necessary ingredients at home. I don't often miss any of them.

Ingredients needed for the dough:

  • 500 grams of white flour. I use 650 type flour from Lidl.
  • 400 grams of water
  • an envelope of dry yeast
  • half a teaspoon of sugar
  • 2 teaspoons salt
  • 4 tablespoons oil

Ingredients needed for the filling:

  • about 300 grams of spinach. I used frozen spinach
  • a can of mushrooms
  • a tablespoon of flour
  • an onion of the right size
  • a garlic hat
  • 5-6 tablespoons of tomato juice
  • salt and pepper

How to prepare fasting pies

First of all, we take care of the dough, because it has to leaven. Put lukewarm water in a bowl and dissolve the yeast and sugar in it. Set the bowl aside until the yeast activates. It takes about 10-15 minutes. Separately, mix the flour with the salt. After the yeast has activated, mix the flour with the water, add the oil and start kneading. A soft, slightly sticky dough will come out. We let it grow until it doubles in volume.

Meanwhile, scald the spinach and drain it well. Then we grind it, along with the other ingredients. I used a mini chopper.

After the dough has risen, we turn it over on a countertop over which we sprinkled a generous layer of flour. We stretch it and make circles like donuts, with the help of a glass or a larger cup. Then, take a teaspoon with a filling tip and put it in the middle of the circle. Place another circle over the spinach and mushroom filling and press the edges with a fork.

Put the pies on baking paper and put them in the oven (170 degrees, top-down function and fan, or over medium heat in normal ovens) for 15-20 minutes. When you see that they are browning nicely it should be ready. If you don't want to make small pies but a fasting pie with mushrooms and big spinach, it's even easier. Divide the dough into two sheets, spread one in the pan, then place the filling evenly and place the second sheet on top.


Meat And Mushroom Pie

A simple but elegant entree, easy to make and yet very effective. The banal meat pie is reinterpreted in a modern note, with a subtle oriental scent to please even the most demanding diners. At least in my case, it was, and the pie tray had a very short life. The pie is also very suitable for a buffet table, in which case you cut it into 4-5 cm cubes, pricked with toothpicks to make the guests' work easier. Or you can keep the composition and change the way of packaging: individual bags with a meaty and tasty core. Regardless of the chosen option, it is important that it can be prepared in advance, and will be put in the oven at the right time.

Regarding the ingredients, I put the minced turkey pulp, but it also goes very well with chicken (possibly still the thighs and not the chest, so as not to get a stuffy filling). Then I put Champignon mushrooms because I had them, but other varieties work. The pie is served hot and is very good and the next day, reheated.

Ingredients (for 6 large portions): fine sheets of pie 10 pcs. (about 200 g) minced turkey or chicken 700 g eggs 3 pcs. Champignon mushrooms 250 g butter 80 g flour 3 tablespoons (60 g) sour cream (20% fat) 100 g dry white wine 125 ml soy sauce 2 tablespoons garlic 3 cloves onion 1 pc. (100 g) fresh dill 1 bunch of ground white pepper, salt

Preheat the oven to 200 degrees Celsius. In a large skillet, over medium heat, melt 30 g butter and sauté finely chopped onion and garlic. Add the minced meat and, stirring constantly, leave to whiten. With a spatula or wooden spoon, grind the meat so that it does not stick and form lumps. Add the cleaned and finely chopped mushrooms (I cut them with the blender). Stir and leave for two to three minutes.

Sprinkle the flour and mix so that it is incorporated without forming lumps. Pour the white wine and leave until the composition reaches boiling point. Add sour cream, soy sauce and half a teaspoon of white pepper. Homogenize and simmer for a minute or two on low heat. Meanwhile, separate the eggs as follows: one egg yolk in a small bowl, two yolks separately and the three egg whites in a low-fat, perfectly dry bowl. Match the composition of meat and salt mushrooms and turn off the heat. Leave for a few minutes to cool a bit, and add the two yolks and dill (cleaned, washed and finely chopped). Homogenize and move to a larger bowl.

Beat the egg whites with a little salt until you get a sticky foam. Gradually incorporate this foam into the meat and mushroom composition. Melt the remaining butter (50 g). Grease a tray or bowl with Jena butter (rectangular and large, close to the size of pie sheets). Carefully place a first sheet (the edges should stay up on the walls of the tray / bowl) and grease it with butter (with a brush). Do the same with three more sheets. Place over the last sheet, half of the meat composition.

Place another sheet of pie, grease it with butter and put another sheet. Grease with butter, including the edges. Put the rest of the composition, and on top come the other four sheets of pie, according to the same typical: sheet, greased with butter, sheet, greased, etc. Fold the edges of the sheets inward to seal the filling. Beat the yolk aside with a tablespoon of water and grease with it, in abundance, the surface of the pie (at this point, the folded edges will soften and stick over the last sheet). Put the tray / bowl in the oven and leave for about 40 minutes or until the pie gets a nice color on top.

Turn off the heat and let the pie breathe, about 10 minutes, before cutting it into pieces and serving it to diners.

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RECIPES Mushrooms with garlic

Served as a side dish or main course, the garlic mushrooms will be high & icircnight! The strong aroma of garlic makes them irresistible.

Ingredient:

800 g champignon mushrooms, cleaned and cut into slices
2 tablespoons olive oil
10 cloves of chopped garlic
200 ml dry white wine
half a bunch of chopped parsley
salt
pepper

Method of preparation:

Heat the oil in a pan over low heat. Add the garlic and cook for 1 minute, until it starts to soften.

Put the mushrooms. Cook for 10 minutes in oil, then add the wine. Leave it on the fire for 15-20 minutes, until the water has evaporated and the mushrooms have a copper color. As soon as it mixes, be careful not to get caught in the pan.

When they are almost ready, season with salt and pepper. At the end add the parsley. Serve the mushrooms hot.


5 delicious mushroom recipes with which you can replace meat!

Mushroom dishes are very popular because they require affordable ingredients and are quite easy to prepare. If you like mushrooms and want to diversify the menu every day, we present below the top 5 best recipes. From the most common products you will get some dishes so delicious and fragrant that you will want to prepare them permanently. Choose your favorite recipe and surprise your loved ones with a special dinner.

Recipe no.1 & # 8211 Potatoes with mushrooms, in cream sauce

INGREDIENTS

-400 g of mushroom mushrooms

-1 small bunch of parsley

-4-5 tablespoons vegetable oil (olive)

-300 ml of high fat cream

METHOD OF PREPARATION

1. Preheat the oven to 200 ° C.

2. Wash and peel the potatoes. Cut them into thin slices, about 2-3 mm. Wash them well and let them drain for a few minutes.

4. Fry the potatoes in a pan with hot oil (with a thicker bottom) over medium heat. Match with salt and ground black pepper. Mix using a wooden spoon. Stir until you notice that the potato slices become sticky (they remove the starch).

5. Pour 1 tablespoon of olive oil into another pan and put it on the fire. Pour the mushrooms into the hot pan. Season with salt and mix. Fry until the mushrooms are ready.

6. Add the chopped garlic to the pan with the potatoes and pour in the cream. The cream should completely cover the potatoes. Lower the heat and cook for another 5 minutes, until the cream thickens a little.

7. Wash and chop the parsley. Take the potato pan off the heat and taste it. If necessary, add more salt or ground black pepper.

8. Add the fried mushrooms and parsley to the pan with the potatoes. Stir.

9. Pour the potatoes with sauce into a baking tin. Bake in a preheated oven for 20-30 minutes.

Recipe no.2 & # 8211 Smoked mushrooms with cream

INGREDIENTS

-1 kg of mushroom mushrooms

-cream (with medium fat level)

METHOD OF PREPARATION

1. Wash the mushrooms well and cut them into smaller pieces.

2. Arrange them in a saucepan. Pour water so that it completely covers the mushrooms. Put the pan on the fire and bring to a boil. Boil the mushrooms for 15-20 minutes.

3. Strain the mushrooms and let them drain for a few minutes.

4. Pour the mushrooms into an oil pan. Put it on the fire.

5. Peel and chop the onion. Add it to the pan with the mushrooms. Stirring periodically, fry over high heat until mushrooms and onions are browned.

6. Pour the cream into the pan. Match with salt and ground black pepper to taste. Stir.

7. Make a small fire and cover the pan with a lid. Stir-fry the mushrooms for another 15 minutes. Stir regularly.

8. Remove the pan from the heat and leave it covered for another 10 minutes. Serve the mushrooms as a garnish or as a main course.

Recipe no.3 & # 8211 Barley with pork and mushrooms, in clay pots

INGREDIENTS

METHOD OF PREPARATION

1. Boil the barley in a saucepan with water and a pinch of salt for 15 minutes. Drain it.

2. Cut the meat into smaller pieces. Fry it in a hot pan with oil until golden brown.

3. Peel and chop the onion. Peel a squash, grate it and squeeze the juice.

4. Add the onion to the meat pan and stir. Fry until the onion is soft.

5. Add the grated carrot to the pan and stir. Add the tomato paste and mix again. Fry for another 3 minutes. Match with salt, ground black pepper and spices to taste (khmeli-suneli, bay leaf, coriander, cumin).

6. Add the mushrooms and chopped garlic to the pan. Stir.

7. Mix the meat with the barley and arrange them in the clay pots. Pour water into the pots so that it covers the meat a little. Cover each pot with a lid.

8. Put the olives in the preheated oven for 1 hour. Before serving, stir and sprinkle with greens.

Recipe no.4 & # 8211 Chicken breast with mushrooms and bell peppers in sour cream sauce

INGREDIENTS

METHOD OF PREPARATION

1. Peel the onion and cut it in half into slices. Wash and peel the bell pepper. Remove the stalk with seeds and cut it into straws.

2. Cut the chicken breast into smaller pieces.

3. Fry the onion in a hot pan with oil until golden brown. Add the bell pepper and mix. Fry for 3 minutes.

4. Add the chicken breast to the pan and stir. Fry until all the liquid has evaporated. Match with salt and ground black pepper.

5. Add the mushrooms and a little water. Stir. If using boiled mushrooms, fry for another 5-10 minutes. Fry until the mushrooms are ready.

6. Pour the cream and a little milk (2 tablespoons). Stir and bring to a boil.

7. Take the pan off the heat and sprinkle the meat with chopped greens.

Recipe no.5 & # 8211 Julien with salmon and mushrooms

INGREDIENTS

-1 salmon or trout steak (larger)

-4 mushroom mushrooms (larger)

METHOD OF PREPARATION

1. Peel and chop the onion. Fry it in a pan with hot oil until it becomes semi-transparent.

2. Cut the mushrooms into smaller pieces or thin slices. Add them to the onion pan. Stir. Fry until almost ready.

3. Cut the fish into smaller pieces. Add it to the pan and stir. Match with salt.

4. Arrange the fish with mushrooms in small baking pans. Pour the cream into each form and sprinkle with grated cheese.

5. Place the molds in the preheated oven at 200 ° C for 10 minutes.


Content

The common ancestor of fungi and animals was probably a flagellated unicellular organism that lived more than a billion years ago. A discovery in an 850-million-year-old slate in Canada is sometimes interpreted as a mushroom fossil. Alleged discoveries in China and Australia, 1.5 billion years old, have yet to be confirmed as fungi. The first largely undisputed discoveries date from the Ordovician geological period and can be attributed to arboreal mycorrhizal fungi. Fossil fungi have also been found in amber, among other things, on well-known coal deposits in Scotland and England, in the late Triassic, carnivorous in Germany, and in remarkable biodiversity in Cretaceous and Tertiary Canadian and Baltic Canadian amber. In some of these discoveries are found mushrooms that attacked termites and nematodes, being closed by the resin together with their hosts. [1] [2] [3]

While the vast majority of fungi that appear today no longer develop flagella, flagellate spores or gametes appear during the reproduction of the species in the cluster. Chytridiomycota. The fungi probably left the water before the plants and colonized the land surface. Since the first known terrestrial plants did not yet have real roots, but obviously living in symbiosis with mycorrhizal arboreal fungi from the Glomeromycota division, it is assumed that these fungi made it hardly possible for the plants to colonize this land. Successful passage of plants would not have been possible without the symbiosis with sponges. [4]

Systematic Modification

About 100,000 species are known in the Fungi Kingdom. According to current estimates (2017), however, there are between 2.2 and 3.8 million of them. [5] The Kingdom is divided as follows: [6]

  • Class I: Phycomycota
  • Class II: Eumycota
    • Subclass 1: Ascomycota
      • Section a: Protoascomycetes sin. Saccharomycetales
      • Section b: Euascomycetes (Plectascales, Pseudosphaeriales, Sphaeriales, Pezizales)
      • Section a: Holobasidiomycetes
      • Section b: Phragmobasidiomycetes sin. Heterobasidiomycetes (Uredinales, Ustilaginales)

      Ontogenesis Modification

      Due to the lack of chromatophores, mushrooms are not suitable for assimilation.

      Some live as parasites or saprophytes on land or in freshwater, very rarely in the sea. Some species are not only heterotrophic for oxygen and nitrogen, but also for other active substances. Their fruiting body consists largely of hose-shaped branched cells, which often contain more than one haploid nucleus. Hyphae (walls, thin filaments) are composed mainly of chitin, only rarely of cellulose. The sum of the hyphae is called mycelium. Some single-celled organisms in the cluster Phycomycota, especially of Ascomycota, does not form mycelium. Eukaryotes Myxogastria sin. Myxomycetes, plasmodial viscous fungi, possess vegetative bodies formed completely differently. More or less all varieties can be grown.

      Another part practices a form of symbiosis between them and plants in which a fungus comes in contact with the fine root system of a plant, called mycorrhiza. Here there are varieties with transversely septate hyphae like others, where this differentiation is missing. In aseptic forms, the entire mycelium can be viewed as a single multi-nuclear cell (syncytium). Also the septate forms of Ascomycetes and many Imperfect fungi they must be seen as sincere. Transverse walls are formed in these organisms only for the separation of the reproductive organs. The transverse walls retain a central cell nucleus of variable size due to premature cessation of wall synthesis by incarnating centripetal. This pore allows not only a plasma contact of neighboring cells, but also the crossing of cell nuclei like other cellular organs. Only in Basiomycetes is there a classification into true cells, comparable to those of higher plants. The hyphae of the upper fungi can materialize during the formation of the fruiting body in a quasi-tissue. These species cannot be grown in general. [6]

      General characteristics of the Eumycota twig in brief Modification

      • Eukaryotic organisms
      • most are multicellular
      • heterotrophic organisms
      • populates any environment
      • nemotile
      • continuous growth
      • the presence of the cell wall
      • the cell membrane (when present) is made up of mycocellulose or mycosin
      • the presence of chitin, callus, etc. within the cell wall are completely missing
      • urea formation
      • multiplication by spores containing reserve substances: glycogen and fat droplets.

      Ultrastructure Modification

      To most representatives of the kingdom fungous the structure of the body is somewhat similar. Here are some common features:

      Fungi reproduce both asexually and sexually.

      Asexual reproduction Change

      In the case of fungi, asexual (vegetative) reproduction is very common. Multiplication does not occur through the formation of sex cells, but through the formation of agametes (spores that form a new organism without fusion with another cell) that some species even lack. These sponges are called Imperfect fungi. There are different types of spores, for example: [6] [7] [8]

      • Arthrospores (powdery mildew): are caused by the rupture of hyphae in individual cells.
      • Ascospores: are vessels in the form of an elongated sac, in which the meiosis of fungi takes place and in which haploid ascospores are formed, which in turn represent a form of spread to some types of fungi. Sporulation is often necessary to quickly generate offspring, for example to overcome periods of hunger.
      • Blastospores: form as protuberances at the tips of the hyphae or in other positions and mature from the base. It separates without the formation of septa. If blastospores form on minor axes, they are called sympodiospores.
      • Chlamydospores: immobile, with coarse walls, intercalation develops (restricted to certain areas) or by swelling of the hyphae heads, both inside the hyphae and through the so-called germination. Terrestrial and aquatic fungi can develop them under unfavorable living conditions.
      • Conidiospores: by constriction at the tip of certain fungal hyphae, the so-called conidiophores are formed, from which the conidiospores are subsequently released. They are exospores.
      • Porospores: with thick walls are formed individually or at the vertices through pores in the cell wall of the hypora carrying spores and can also be formed as chains that grow from the base to the tip.
      • Sporangiospores: they form endogenously in special hyphae, so-called sporangia (in Phycomycota), sac-like fruit containers, inside which sporangiospores develop.
      • Zoospores: are found only in aquatic fungi, being flagellated spores that develop endogenously in zoosporangia.

      Sexual reproduction Change

      The principle of sexual reproduction that does not produce identical offspring, unlike asexual reproduction, is the formation of spores (meiospores) genetically new compounds after cell fusion (plasmogamy), nuclear fusion (karyogamy) and cell division (meiosis).

      Mushrooms can form conidia with sexual spores. They are usually haploid, so they have only one simple set of chromosomes in their cell nuclei and only go through a short diploid phase with two sets of chromosomes during sexual reproduction. Two spores completely merge (including karyogamy, plasmogamy) and form a new diploid cell. Between them there is a phase with two nuclei in the fungi Basidiomycota and most fungi Ascomycota which is not known to other living things. In this phase, each cell contains two haploid nuclei of different "parental" origin. These processes are also possible alternatively, so that fungi can pass between haploid and diploid organisms, as well as between sexual and asexual reproduction. The course of sexual processes differs greatly in the different systematic departments of the fungi. Such varieties are called Perfect fungi. [9] [10]

      Fungus fungi Mucoromycota and Zoopagomycota they do not form fruiting bodies, but exist only as multi-nuclear mycelium. In them, the neighboring hyphae emit extensions, called gametangii, which combine in the shape of a yoke. The point of contact then swells, the separating cell walls dissolve and the multi-nuclear fusion product is isolated from the two gametangs by partitions. The diploid phase is achieved by fusing cell nuclei in pairs. [11] [12]

      Finally, it should be noted that the formation of fruiting bodies is associated with a considerable increase in metabolic activity, because they form considerably more proteins and nucleic acids than in mycelium and due to this, increased energy consumption is required, which is it also reflects in a corresponding increase in oxygen consumption. [13]

      Outline of reproduction types (possible) Change

      Mushrooms act as a decomposer of dead organic materials (saprophytes), feed as parasites on other living things or live in a reciprocal (mutualistic) symbiosis with plants (mycorrhiza) or together with blue-green algae (lichens). Due to the very efficient distribution of spores, they are practically everywhere where a suitable substrate is available and can generally use a very wide range of food sources. [14]

      • Saprophytes: there are on the one hand species that grow on rich soil, leaves, garbage, horse manure, etc. (which they feed on), on the other hand sponges that can break down and use lignin almost exclusively. They are also the most important users in the breakdown of cellulose, hemicellulose and keratin. Together with bacteria and small animal organisms, they form humus from organic waste. The importance of fungi in the degradation of lignin and especially of the very lignin-rich trunks of dead trees is highlighted in several ways. Only fungi, especially certain varieties of the Basidiomycota cluster, which are grouped under the name "white rot fungi" (a term used to describe the decomposition of wood by fungi, when they mainly decompose brown lignin and remain colorless cellulose), are able to decompose. effectively larger pieces of dead wood. These organic nutrients are converted to inorganic substances, such as carbon dioxide or nitrates. Unlike bacteria, some of which can capitalize to a limited extent on available products of already partially degraded lignin, fungi with their hyphae actively enter the wood, having the enzymes needed for complicated and energy-intensive degradation. Oxygen is absolutely necessary for this degradation process. Where this is not the case, the wood is stored for a long time, for example in peat bogs) and is finally transformed into coal for long geological periods. [15] [16]
      • Parasites: when a fungus parasitizes a plant, it enters its cells with specialized hyphae, which allow the parasite to enter its host tissues and absorb nutrients from them (eg species such as Armillariella on softwoods). They penetrate the cell wall, but leave the cell membrane intact (otherwise the cell plasma would escape and the host cell would die), wrapping it only so that it is now surrounded by a double membrane. This process allows the removal of nutrients from the plasma of the host cell. Parasitic fungi are often specialized for certain host organisms. To find the right ones, they developed different methods. First of all, they produce large amounts of spores, thus increasing the chance that some of them will reach compatible host plants. Fungi out of order Weather in Pucciniales (rust fungi) for example infest mainly stems and leaves. They have a complex life cycle, which often includes changing hosts. A number of representatives are of economic importance because they affect agricultural crops (e.g. Puccinia graminis on cereals, Puccinia striiformis on wheat or Melampsorella caryophyllacearum on silver fir). Other species have learned to spread effectively through insects that visit host plants. Thus, certain yeasts that live in nectar are transported from flower to flower. Spores Monilinia fructigena, the causative agent of fruit rot of fruit trees, are spread by wasps, which at the same time provide access to the fungus by gnawing the fruit. Species of the order Ustilaginales they can live saprophytically in the soil for years without host plants. An example is Ustilago maydis (corn fire): up to 12 years later, infectious mycelium was found in a field affected by it that immediately parasitizes freshly sown plants again. [17] [18] Animals and humans can also suffer from fungal infections when they come in contact with fungal spores of the order Dermatophytes, such as Microsporum canis infesting mainly dogs and cats (20%), rarely humans [19] or the well-known athlete's foot (Tinea pedis). [20]
      • Mycorrhizans: are included in many families of large fungi of the Basidiomycota cluster (eg Amanitaceae, Boletaceae, Cantharellaceae, Russulaceae, Suillaceae) where the mycelium of the fungus wraps around the roots of the trees as a mycelial sheath, penetrating not into the bark, but also into the bark. . But in much larger numbers there are very small fungi in the Glomeromycota division that form arboreal mycorrhizal associations, penetrating the cells of the bark. However, they are the most valuable mushrooms for nature. They form mycorrhizal associations with plants, transferring water and various inorganic substances, especially phosphates and minerals, to the roots, as the fine mycelium penetrates the soil closer than the suction roots could, receiving in turn carbohydrates, especially sugar, which it produces the plant through photosynthesis. Fungi could not live without this symbiosis because they are not able to produce organic matter. But in turn, some plants would survive very hard without the help of these fungi. There is a very close contact between the roots of the sponges and the roots of the trees. This better nutrition is especially noticeable in very poor soils. As for the tree fungi, it should be mentioned that sometimes they can prevent the growth of the plant. [21] [22]

      Orchids are an extreme case, many of which are already dependent on their fungal symbiotic partners when their seeds germinate under natural conditions. Some orchids, for example Neottia nidus-avis, do not contain chlorophyll and therefore cannot photosynthesize, but get all the nutrients from the fungus, which they thus parasitize. [2. 3]

      • Lichens: they have a special position. They are fungi that harbor unicellular blue-green algae as symbionts and are therefore photoautotrophic, ie they are not dependent on external food sources due to the photosynthesis of their symbionts. Unlike any of the partners alone, they can colonize extreme habitats. However, the mushrooms in question are difficult to viable without their symbionts, while the latter can thrive and isolate. For lichens, the advantage of symbiosis is that a much wider range of habitats opens up for them. [24]
      • Specifications

      - Marine and xerophilous species

      Mushrooms, especially from the Ascomycota cluster, are also widespread in marine habitats, ie in an extremely saline environment, being parasitic on plants and animals from the sea. They combat high osmotic pressure by properly enriching polyols (higher alcohols), mainly glycerin, but also mannitol and arabitol in the hyphae. The situation is similar to xerophilous molds and yeasts (extremophilic organisms that can live and reproduce in conditions with low water availability). They grow, for example, which can grow on pickled herring or marmalade. [25]

      Most fungi are aerobic organisms. But some are anaerobic, they can either manage temporarily without oxygen (optional anaerobic), for example yeasts that ferment under these conditions, living on sugar (for them much more efficient than with aerobic respiration), or even lost the ability to use it at all (mandatory anaerobic) as species of the family Neocallimastigaceae, which live in the rumen of ruminants being specialized in the use of cellulose. [26]

      Mushrooms can populate almost any living environment, subject to certain conditions, valid for most terrestrial species:

      • the presence of the organic substrate
      • lack of too much brightness
      • high temperature
      • enough moisture.

      For humans, fungi play both a positive and a negative role. See also below under "external links".

      There are species that are easy to identify, but others, where confusion is possible and sometimes with a fatal result. Some examples in detail:

      - The order Agaricales it is the most dangerous. Thus lethal species of the genus postponed (Amanita phalloides, Amanita verna, Amanita virosa) respectively quite toxic as Amanita gemmata, Amanita pantherina) or those of the kind Clitocybe with for example Clitocybe dealbata (+), Clitocybe fragrans, Clitocybe rivulosa (+) such as those in the genre Cortinarius (Cortinarius cinnamomeus, Cortinarius gentilis (+), Cortinarius orellanus (+), Cortinarius rubellus (+) or Cortinarius traganus), often have a great resemblance to edible varieties. Varieties of the genus Inocybe are all severely poisonous, while those of Gomphidius and family sponges Hygrophoraceae with all edibles. In addition, species declared edible are still collected in older mycological books, which in the meantime have proved as deadly as possible, such as Paxillus involutus or Equestrian tricholoma. Galerina marginata caused quite a few lethal poisons by confusing it with e.g. Flammulina velutipes or Kuehneromyces mutabilis, as and Pleurocybella porrigens.

      - The order Bulletins includes species with white to yellowish pores (greenish-yellow) and others with reddish to red pores. In those with open pores there are no toxic smiles, but some are inedible due to the bitter taste (Boletus calopus, Boletus radicans, Tylopilus felleus). In those with red pores a confusion of edible species with poisonous ones, but not lethal, is quite slight, as for example with Boletus lupinus, Boletus rhodoxanthus or Boletus satanas).

      - The order Cantharellales does not know inedible or even toxic mushrooms.

      - The order Polyporales knows mostly edible mushrooms. Some species cannot be eaten, being bitter or hard.

      - The order Russulales has its own rules. For the genres Lactarius, Lactifluus and Russula it matters, that all sponges without an unpleasant odor such as a sharp or inconvenient taste are edible. Even some of those hot ones could be eaten. [27] [28]

      - The twig Ascomycota knows very toxic mold fungi (Hypomyces chrysospermus, Serpula lacrymans), but also for example very useful yeast. As for families with larger mushrooms it can be said that Morchellaceae-they are all edible, but Helvellaceae-they have poisonous or suspicious species among them, not always easy to identify, being thus only something for connoisseurs.

      You can see more details on the description page of the mushrooms.

      These mushrooms contain psychotropic substances such as psilocybin, psilocin, muscimol or ergot. The best known are psilocybin-containing fungi. Their effects are sometimes compared to those of LSD. These include exotic species, such as Psilocybe cubensis but also native species, such as Mycena pura, Pluteus salicinus or Psilocybe semilanceata. Amanita muscaria and Amanita regalis contain ibotenic acid and the toxic and psychotropic muscimol derivative, much more effective in the dry stage. Both substances are classified as delusional. [29] In addition to other toxic substances, Claviceps purpurea it also contains ergot. [30] Psychoactive mushrooms have had and still have a spiritual significance as entheogenic substances for various indigenous peoples. [31] Inexperienced mushroom pickers risk picking mushrooms that contain these substances. Unfortunately, many young people also experiment with these sponges without thinking about the harmful effects on health.

      In the world, there are over 100 species of mushrooms used for therapeutic purposes, especially in China and Japan. They contain proteins, amino acids, vitamins, minerals and many other active microelements, becoming adjuvant agents in the complementary therapies of many diseases. [32] In Europe and North America, mushrooms have also been used for medicinal purposes since the early twentieth century. Drugs like the antibiotic penicillin are made from mushrooms. Other fungal metabolites lower cholesterol or help with malaria (Metarhizium pingshaense genetically engineered). [33]

      - A large role is played by the mass cultivation of large edible saprophytic and parasitic fungi. The best known are Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia auricula-judae, Lentinula edodes, sin. Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus. [34] .

      - Among single-celled mushrooms, sugar yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces, especially baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, But and Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces ellipsoides and Saccharomyces uvarum (there are over 1,500 species), are the best known mushrooms useful in this field. They produce alcohol and carbon dioxide by alcoholic fermentation and are used to bake a dough, in the preparation of beer, in the production of wine, in other alcoholic beverages such as certain (also low-alcohol) products of curdled milk (eg kefir). . [35] Yeast used today is usually grown, produced biotechnologically, but the one that lives naturally on the surface of grapes is still used in many cases, especially in wine production. In addition to lactic acid bacteria, the dough used in baking bread also contains yeast. [36] Mold fungus Botrytis cinerea it also plays a role in wine production. In cool, humid autumn weather, it causes rot on the grains, which causes the grain to pierce the skin. Later, they lose water, leaving behind a higher percentage of solids, such as sugars, fruit acids and minerals, resulting in a more concentrated and intense final product. Yquem Castle is the only Premier Cru Supérieur, largely due to the susceptibility of the vineyard to the so-called noble rot. [37] On the other hand, the fungus is very harmful to, for example, strawberries or tomatoes. [38]

      - Many types of mold (Penicillium candidum, Penicillium camemberti, Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium glaucum etc.) play an important role in the maturation process of dairy products, especially sour dairy products and cheeses (eg Blue Stilton, Gorgonzola, Roquefort, infested with blue mold or Camembert and Brie cheese with white) . [39] [40] On the contrary, the rot of bread Rhizopus stolonifer which harms and for example sweet potatoes strawberries, papaya, plums or tomatoes is very toxic to humans and animals. [41]

      The largest fasting are cultivated saprophytic fungi and parasites. Agaricus bisporus is the most important edible sponge grown worldwide. It was first raised in Paris by Olivier de Serres (1539-1619) during the reign of King Louis XIII of France. They followed Agaricus bitorquis, which performs stronger meat such as brown mushroom, derived from Agaricus silvaticus. [42] [43] Agaricus subrufescens sin. Agaricus blazei is a mushroom grown in the Far East and South America due to its famous medicinal properties, which have been attributed to it since ancient times, including against cancer. It is used in alternative medicine. [44] But scientific evidence is lacking to this day. [45] Worldwide, about 1.5 million tons of mushrooms have been produced annually (2011). At European level, about 60% of this quantity is produced, ie around 900,000 tonnes, with the main mushroom-producing countries being France, Poland, Italy and Hungary. Of all the mushroom species, Romanians prefer the species Agaricus (Champignon), while abroad the species is much more appreciated oyster, [46] and in East Asia the varieties Mu-Err and Shiitake.

      A lot of money is also made with powders, tinctures and capsules from "medicinal mushrooms". But the effect is doubtful. [47]


      Mushroom dumplings - Recipes

      If you want to surprise your guests or loved ones with an unusual and tasty dish, cook food with mushrooms . Juicy and delicate, they combine the taste of fresh fried mushrooms and fresh meat. If you spend a little more than usual, you will enjoy both children and adults with an unusual & quot; surprise & quot.

        • meat (beef or pork)
        • fresh mushrooms (white or shampoo)
        • egg
        • carrot
        • onion
        • biscuit
        • vegetable oil
        • black pepper
        • salt.

        Bake an onion and finely chop. Wash 500 grams of beef or pork under cold water, cut it into small pieces and twist it through a meat grinder (you can use minced meat, but not thawed). Put the minced meat in a deep bowl and add the same chopped onion, a chicken egg, salt and black pepper to taste. Mix everything in a homogeneous mass.

        Prepare the mushroom filling for the chops. To do this, wipe the samples well with a paper towel if the white mushrooms are used for cooking, rinse well. Cut the dark lower legs of the mushrooms and cut them into small slices or pieces. Heat the pan and lightly fry the mushrooms (white mushrooms) with 1-2 tablespoons of vegetable oil, but do not bring to full preparation. Bake a medium onion and a carrot. Chop the onion well and fry the carrot. Put two tablespoons of vegetable oil, then add vegetables to the mushrooms and mix.

        Take a little filling and form a circle with a diameter of about 14-15 centimeters and a thickness of 0, 5 cm. In the middle of the place of 1-2 tablespoons of mushroom filling, carefully connect the edges so that the filling does not fall and give them the shape of buns or balls. Press lightly upwards and turn in breadcrumbs. It's frying the bars of on both sides for 3-4 tablespoons of vegetable oil. served Burger with a side plate, watering them on the white sauce or sprinkling with freshly cut herbs.

        Porcini mushrooms deteriorate very quickly, so for the preparation of meatballs it is best to use collected no more than 5 hours ago.

        Instead of eggs and onions, you can add a piece of white bread or a bread weighing about 100 grams soaked in milk.


        Video: MIKE TYSON TAKES MUSHROOMS ON IMPAULSIVE! (September 2021).