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The Food Almanac: Monday, January 13, 2014

The Food Almanac: Monday, January 13, 2014

Annals Of Restaurant Fires
Today in 1830 a major fire swept through New Orleans. It destroyed a large part of the French Quarter and downtown. But the city was prosperous then, and after the fire a building boom ensued, with the result that a large number of structures in the French Quarter and CBD date back to the 1830s–including most of those being used now as restaurants.

Over the years a number of restaurants have been ravaged by major fires. The one most people remember was the fire started in an air duct by the flames from bananas Foster at Brennan’s on April 3, 1975. It took six months for the restaurant to reopen. The same year, Visko’s in Gretna burned down and reopened, but it was never the same afterwards. In 1980, also in Gretna, the local branch of the Natchez catfish house called Cock of the Walk went up in flames, never to return. Right after it opened following Katrina, Mr. Ed’s in Bucktown had a disastrous fire from which they quickly rebuilt.

Fires in kitchens happen more than you might realize. Any restaurant serving soufflee potatoes has two or three fires per night. Fortunately, kitchens have such good fire-prevention apparatus that fires in them rarely take the whole place down. Instead, they close the restaurant for the night, and give everybody in the house when it happens a free meal.

Outstanding Restaurateurs
Mark Benfatti is fifty-three today. He’s the owner of N’Tini’s in Mandeville, a restaurant with a story. It originally opened in 2004 in Chalmette, where Mark lived and had operated an all-night cafe for a few years. N’Tini’s was as upscale as any other restaurant in St. Bernard, and had attracted a lot of regulars when Katrina destroyed the restaurant, Mark’s house, and everything else in St. Bermard. Like many others from that area, he moved to the North Shore and started over. N’Tini’s became not only a haven for the transplants, but also a very popular place among Northshorinians, too. He’s among the most hospitable of restaurateurs, and always has something special going on.

Today’s Flavor
Today is National Peach Melba Day. See “Edible Dictionary,”below.

Gourmet Gazetteer
Peach, Tennessee is just over the Alabama state line, 144 miles west of Chattanooga. It’s hilly country around there, with large farm fields interspersed with equally large patches of woods. The crossroads community is on the East Fork of Sugar Creek, a tributary of the Tennessee River. Peach Road crosses the stream not with a bridge but with a ford. Talk about rural! The nearest restaurant is the Fish Creel in Anderson, Alabama, about nine miles south.

Edible Dictionary
peach Melba, n.,–A dessert made by surrounding a scoop of vanilla ice cream with fresh (let’s hope) sliced peaches, and spooning a raspberry puree over the resulting sundae. It’s usually garnished with chopped or sliced almonds or walnuts. It was invented in the 1890s by no less than August Escoffier, one of the most renowned French chefs of all time. He made it for Dame Nellie Melba, the famous Australian opera singer who is also the namesake of melba toast. A story has it that she though the dessert was good for her vocal cords, but any singer or speaker will tell you that dairy products, sugar, and cold foods are all to be avoided before opening one’s mouth.

Deft Dining Rule #29:
If a restaurant has removed your favorite dish from the menu, and you miss it, just ask for it. Four times out of five they’ll make it for you.

Annals Of Food Writing
Today is the birthday of Pierre Franey, long-time food writer for the New York Times and author of several cookbooks, including some in collaboration with Craig Claiborne. He made his name as a chef at Pavillon in New York City, a seminal restaurant that brought first-class French culinary style to the American restaurant scene. Franey was on my radio show once, and I had dinner with him afterwards at Les Continents, in the Inter-Continental Hotel. He was full of stories and bonhomie.

Presidential Eating
Today in 2002, President George Bush II choked on a pretzel while watching a football game. He passed out momentarily. Another good reason not to watch football games. This episode gave rise to the vice-presidential motto: “One pretzel away from the Presidency.”

The Old Kitchen Sage Sez:
After you bake potatoes, get them out of the oven immediately and open them up. The best way is to poke a cross on top with four insertions of a fork. Then squeeze the sides with the thumbs and forefingers of both hands. It will pop open and let the steam out, so they don’t get soggy.

Annals Of Seafood Research
On this day in 1998, an article in the San Francisco Chronicle noted that 20 million tons of edible fish per year–about ten pounds for every living person–are caught as “bycatch” and thrown away, dead. This is one of the worst pressures on fish stocks. Laws in recent years have addressed this, although the situation is still pretty bad.

Music To Eat Gumbo By
Two New Orleans jazz greats were born today: guitarist Danny Barker (1909) and trumpeter Percy Humphrey (1905). I was lucky enough to hear both of them numerous times in the old Bourbon Street jazz clubs, near the ends of their long careers, and before bands playing rock and country music took over.

The Saints
This is the feast day of St. Kentigern, a bishop and missionary in Wales and Scotland in the sixth century. He is the patron saint of salmon. One of the stories told about him is that he caught a salmon, cut it open , and turned up a ring lost by the queen of Cadzow. Speaking of salmon. .

Today, the Monday after Epiphany, is Plow Day. That’s the day when farmers return to work after the twelve days of Christmas, plus whatever else the calendar allows them to get away with–a whole week, this year. Here in New Orleans, we wind up postponing anything serious for a month or two longer, because Epiphany is the first day of Carnival, and we turn a lot of our attention to that celebration. So, if we did do any plowing around here, it wouldn’t get started in earnest until Ash Wednesday.

Food Namesakes
Salmon P. Chase, Secretary of the Treasury under Abraham Lincoln and later Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, was born today in 1808. His picture was on the now-extinct $10,000 bill. A year earlier, Major General Napoleon Bonaparte Buford of the Union Volunteers was born. The oversize Rally’s hamburger is not named for him, but his name brought it to mind.

Words To Eat By
“Training is everything. The peach was once a bitter almond; cauliflower is nothing but cabbage with a college education.” –Mark Twain.

Words To Drink By
“Nothing In Moderation.”–The epitaph on the gravestone of brilliant early TV comedian Ernie Kovacs, who died today in 1962.

“Oh brother, be a brother, fill this tiny cup of mine.
And please, sir, make it whiskey: I have no head for wine!
Nick Cave.

How to Develop Original Recipes

This post may contain affiliate links. Please read my disclosure policy for more details.

Want to develop your own recipes from scratch? Here are some of my best tips to get started.

I'm going to be honest with you here—a few years ago, I had absolutely no idea how to write a recipe from scratch. I remember searching far and wide online for tips but struggled to decide where to start.

But, honestly, when it comes down to it, developing recipes really isn't that hard! I'm going to focus more on writing baking recipes here just because, y'know, that's what my specialty is. However, you can definitely apply these concepts to writing savory recipes as well. Here are a few of my best tips to get started.

Dry January Last Week? LOL

A tough week of wildly different highs and lows, my mind is intrigued that my heart feels true emotions about democracy. For the first time since January 1, I really wanted a drink Wednesday. To deal with emotions. Didn&rsquot take one (pat on back). Was hoping a fellow Dry January Joker Support friend would text, &ldquo Let&rsquos toast and watch democracy crumble together .&rdquo Instead they stood valiant, and here we are, over a week into an eating & drinking revolution.

People have asked: &ldquoWhy joker support group?&rdquo Well, what better support than one of fun? In that spirit&hellip

A baby seal walks into a bar. &ldquoWhat can I get you?&rdquo asks the bartender. &ldquoAnything but a Canadian Club,&rdquo replies the seal.

A termite walks into a bar and asks, &ldquoIs the bar tender here?&rdquo

But seriously folks, if you&rsquove cut out alcohol, sugar or whatever these first weeks of 2021, hats off to you. It&rsquos never easy to change up eating or drinking habits, but doing it teaches us much about ourselves and our often mindless habits of consumption.

One thing I&rsquove realized so far, is that I really enjoy the taste of certain alcohols and liquors. Not because of the alcohol, but just because of the taste. That complexity of mouth and mind sensation, hard to define, hard to reproduce. On point &ndash describe the taste of bourbon. If it&rsquos difficult to even find words for the task, where might substitutes and new recipes be found?

Perfect replacements are a fool&rsquos errand, but hope lies in creativity. I&rsquove been scavenging for happy hour stand-ins and night cap alternatives. Check out new on-the-shelf, non-alcoholic libations here, and read on for easy ideas we&rsquove been Food Partying! with as of late.

A fastest route to a complex party of taste for tongue and brain is with bitters &ndash infusions made from botanicals such as eucalyptus, spice, coffee, cigar, jasmine, ceylon, ginger, plum, dandelion root and many others, ready for a spritz over sparkling water.

Bitters can be +25% alcohol, but just a few dabs will do ya. They can also be
made alcohol-free. With many styles and artisan brands &ndash take a trip to your local, top-shelf liquor or wine store for fun options that can capture your interest. Have a tasting party and discover your favorites. Try hot tea with bitters. Or just shake it into the can! (keep your can cold though - get a Yeti holder) Search online too.

Herbal Syrups and Shrubs
Here&rsquos a simple DIY recipe.

Syrup : Combine equal parts: water, sugar of choice, herbs of choice
Shrub: Include equal parts: fruit of choice, vinegar of choice
Add spices as you like.
Bring to a boil in a pot, Turn off, cover pot, infuse ½ hour. Strain.

Add a few drops to iced or warm tea, sparkling water, or any drink. Also use in a vinaigrette. Reduce added sugar if you choose.

It&rsquos the fermentation process involved in making kombucha that lends intricacy here, gaining mind-grabbing flavor from the yeasts and bacteria that accompany a base, usually made of tea and sweetener. This good bacteria drink is known for health benefits, although much more science is needed about the role of microbiome. I just found a Petaluma company at Safeway, low in carbohydrates and only 45 calories. Refreshing!

Perfect for the season when one prefers something warm and cozy. Buy a premade mix or make your own, this option can be described as haute hot chocolate , made from shreds of chocolate, not powder. Add to warm milk or tea. There are many styles and prices. Here is one I&rsquove been sipping, seasoned with monkfruit (keto, no-carbohydrate sweetener).

Citrus Zest
Just a little zest of orange, lemon or lime peels grated into sparkling water adds pleasant depth of character

Dirty Laura
Chef Jessie Cool of Flea Street Café fame, introduced me to a Dirty Martini 30 years ago, and we've been together ever since. If you&rsquore a fan too, try mixing olive juice into sparkling water. Ok, it's weird but opposites attract! Garnish with olive, onion, pepperoncini and cheese cube, and you are back home with the one you love.

Finally, the complexity earned from rehydrating a bar of tamarind* straining the pulp, and mixing it into a refined tonic, such as Fever-Tree, is not to be forgotten.

Gin, Tonic & Tamarind
- sans gin

1 block of tamarind (use tamarind syrup for easier option)*
1 bottle tonic water (get the good stuff)
Gin (optional)

Cut off about a ¼ cup of tamarind (you can smash it in a cup to measure) and soften in 6 T or so of hot water. Cover for 10 minutes. Squish the tamarind with your fingers into a paste. If it has seeds remove, or use seed-free tamarind. Push pulp through a fine strainer. If you have a lot of paste left on the block, add a bit more water and do the step again.

In your glass, mix 1 T pulp with a small amount of tonic and combine well. Stir in remainder of tonic and add ice. Squeeze in a fresh slice of lime. Store remaining strained pulp in a glass jar and refrigerate for next time.

*Tamarind is a sour, sticky and dark fruit, often used in Indian and Thai cuisine. Purchase at Latin American, Indian and Asian grocers as a solid bar or as a liquidy extract.

A few years ago on the Fourth of July we wanted to invite some neighbors over for homemade cinnamon rolls. I make the rolls from scratch my wife invites. We live in the middle of the block. While the majority of the folks are of European heritage, the diversity gets.

The first thing I saw when Dad turned our car down Grandma’s street in Merriam Park was the sky-high catalpa tree in her front yard. It was the only “cigar tree” on the block, and when I spied it, I knew we were almost there. It was a beautiful tree, with frilly white.

First Monday Library Chat: The Boots Archive

The Recipes Project heads to Notthingham, UK this month, to learn about the collections of Boots, UK Archive. We spoke with Sophie Clapp, Corporate Archivist, and Amy Gardener Archive and Record Assistant.

Could you give us an overview of the Boots Archive? What types of artefacts and documents does it contain? How was it put together?

Boots archive material was first collated by the business in the 1950s by the librarian in the research department. Based on the main Boots site in Nottingham, we welcomed our first professional archivist in 1995 and the team has grown over the years to three full time archivists.

The collection has been formed though a variety of methods, including acquisitions and deposits from within the business and from a few external sources. Since 2000, there has been a more systematic approach to growing the collection though tight links with the Records Management team. The museum collection was primarily formed through a large donation from a Boots employee.

The contents of the collection are varied and contain a mixture of business, social and medical items.

The archive consists mainly of the business records of the company and includes minutes, plans, ledgers, accounts and sales information made up of portfolios, photographs, architectural plans, advertisements and product samples. We also hold items relating to the Boot family and their employees through the years, including salary details, welfare and social activities, photographs and staff magazines.

From a medical point of view, the collection contains recipes, formulations and research documents for Boots products over the years, including early medical and herbal products, the development of ibuprofen, No7 cosmetics and skincare. Pharmaceutical journals, marketing and record books make up other items in the collection. As well as medicine and pharmacy, we have an optometry collection, formally the Dollond & Aitchison archive dating from c1750 onwards.

We also hold a wide variety of medical and surgical ephemera, dating from the late 1600’s to the present day.

Can you give us a few highlights from your collection?

We have so many items in the collections which could be considered highlights depending on your area of interest. Every member of the team has different favourites.

For me with my interest in cosmetics and beauty, the collection of items from the original 1935 No7 collection in their art deco style packaging are particular favourites along with a double ‘Punkt’ roller from the 1930’s which was marketed as an instant slimming aid.

Herbal Almanack for 1876. Boots UK

We have a beautiful collection of delftware apothecary jars dating from c.1680-1900, several lovely apothecary chests and a Herbal Almanac from 1876, which has an advert for Boots on the cover, which I am particularly fond of.

Which of your documents or artefacts would appeal most to the recipe-fans who read the Recipes Project?

We have many items dating back to the early days of the business, and a selection of objects from further back in the history of medicine.

These include early copies of pharmacy journals, formulation books, dispensing notebooks and reference books dating from the early 1800’s to the present day, such as a Tincture Reference Book from 1898 and a Formula Book dated from 1898 -1919.

Within the museum collection we have a number of medicine chests, including an engraved late 17 th Century Dutch casket, depicting William of Orange on the inside.

We also have pressed herbs and artefacts which held and were used to manufacture medicines, such as scales, pestles and mortars, pill rollers and suppository makers. We also have a collection of surgical instruments, pharmacy equipment, medical aids and display items such as carboys and species jars.

Historians of medicine and pharmacy are all familiar with academic libraries and archives, but perhaps less with those of private companies. Do you have any tips on how they can make the most of the resources you have? How can they discover what is in the Boots archive?

Presently, the best way to discover the collection is though one of our archivists. All someone needs to do is contact one of the team with details of their research and we will guide them on the relevant documents within the collection. We have a reading room which researchers can come to use the collection by appointment and an archivist is always on hand to assist with access and research.

At the moment, the primary user of the archive is the business, but we are always ready to welcome researchers and academics to the records centre. Currently researchers are looking into topics as varied as welfare, antiseptics and antibiotics and corporate identity.

As we are a corporate archive, there are some items in the collection which are closed for 30 years or longer due to Data Protection and some which are closed permanently due to corporate sensitivity, but aside from these, the team are very happy to advise on any relevant items.

The variation in items often means that a document that may not seem relevant to someone’s research may actually be of great use – we’re found that this works both ways some documents we might think of as irrelevant to a particular researcher have turned out to be just what they are looking for!

We are in the early stages of a project funded by the Wellcome Trust which aims to make the archive more accessible. In future, we will have the entire catalogue searchable online which will transform the collection into an internationally available academic resource.

Finally, for those of us who living afar, could you tell us a little about we might be able to consult your rich holdings?

For people farther afield, again, the route into the collection will be through the archivists at the moment.

In the future we hope to have many items digitised and accessible online, including images, documents and artworks that are of regular interest. The team are happy to copy and digitise items of particular interest and send them on to anywhere in the world.

First Monday Library Chat: Wangensteen Library

Welcome back to the First Monday Library Chat. Today we’ll be learning more about the Wangensteen Historical Library of Biology and Medicine at the University of Minnesota. Dedicated initially to the history of medicine and surgery, the collection has grown considerably over the past fifty years to cover all academic health center disciplines, including nursing, pharmacy, veterinary medicine, and the history of biology. The collection has 80,000 rare books, manuscripts and serials ranging from 1480-1930. Today I’m talking with Lois Hendrickson, curator, and Emily Hagens, PhD Candidate in the History of Medicine.

Can you give us an overview of some of the rare and unique items in your collection?

Having just finished installing our most recent exhibit celebrating the 500th anniversary of Vesalius’s birth, we’ve re-examined many books from our deep and rich anatomical atlas collection. We have an especially complete collection on Vesalius and the history of early modern anatomy, including a rare German edition of Vesalius’s Epitome (1543). I’m especially taken with items that resonate with other materials in the collection. A recent manuscript acquisition, an inventory of an unnamed apothecary shop in mid-17th century Toulouse, has the potential to shed light on our growing collection of medicinal recipe books and our pharmaceutical materials. Divided into sections, it lists merchandise, equipment, and client accounts, all offering a rare picture of the activities and contents of a pharmacy.

Inventory of an apothecary’s shop in Toulouse, 1645. Courtesy of Wangensteen Historical Library of Biology and Medicine.

The history of biology (natural history) materials are also compelling. Many rare books from our conchology, bird and insect collections have been borrowed and featured in recent exhibits on Audubon, shells, butterflies. A particular favorite is Danish physician Ole Worm’s Museum Wormianum (1665). The frontispiece of his catalog depicts a cabinet of curiosities ranging from native artifacts to fossils, and inspires many conversations with students about collecting and classification.

I’m fascinated by the Pamard archives, which represent the work of seven generations of a French family of opthalmological surgeons founded in Avignon in the late 17th century. Are there any recipes in here? Are there related letters and diaries that might help us contextualize these recipes?

Among the extensive personal and professional papers, students’ notes, correspondence, hospital records, public health notices, statistics, and poetry, there are remedies, recipes, and diaries. In particular, the papers of Nicolas Dominique Pamard (c. 1702-1783) contain numbered remedies, lists of items related to them, and dosing advice. Another of his undated bound books is labeled as a “Collection of Secrets and Remedies of Experienced Knowledge. His grandson, Jean Baptiste Antoine Bénézet Pamard (1763-1827) used local interactions and experiences to study the health needs of the general public. He published a medical topography of Avignon including observations on climate, water supply, and the nature of the local people. His personal notebook, which he referred to as his ”journal of observations on myself‟ is a mix of medical etiology and family observations. It was a place of self-reflection, and shaped the way he viewed himself. It may be interesting to see if there are parallels in medicinal recipe manuscripts how did the authors view themselves, and did they have similar experiences to physicians when distinguishing between symptoms (a patient’s report) and signs (markers of disease). These records have been the basis for the masters thesis “ Constructing Identity in the Romantic Age: The Medical Writings of Jean-Baptiste Antoine Bénézet Pamard (1763-1827) “ , but much more could be gleaned from this rich collection.

I understand that you have a growing collection of manuscript recipe books. Can you tell us more about the scope of your collection? Why do you consider this genre to be of importance?

We collect manuscript recipe books with a medical focus. They range in date from 1552 to 1890, and while many are in English, we also have some in French, German and Chinese. The Wangensteen Library’s primary identity is as a teaching library. On a very basic level, manuscript recipe books are powerful resources that resonate with students because they contain tangible evidence of actual historical people. The evidence of practice helps students connect with early modern history, and leads them think about how individuals formed relationships with particular kinds of knowledge, as well as knowledge producers around them, and how they applied this to everyday problems. Students come to the Wangensteen Library with a background in a variety of disciplines, including the expected (History of Medicine and Science) and the unexpected (English as a Second Language, Art, and Rhetoric). Because of this, we’re always trying to think of new ways to make the collection relevant to a broader group of disciplines. Knowing that recipe books cover so many topics, we have planned an interdisciplinary workshop on recipe books for spring 2015. Funded by a small grant, we expect graduate students and faculty from the departments of Spanish & Portuguese, History, the History of Medicine, as well as special collections staff to participate and see what we can uncover together within the same sources.

Can you highlight one or two of your favorite items?

It is hard to pick just a few books to highlight! Emily’s favorite book is a 1542 De Historia Stirpium by Leonhart Fuchs that is completely colored. The way readers have adjusted the images and heavily annotated the text helps students understand the fluidity of, what they view as, obvious botanical knowledge in another time period. Lois likes our collection of patent medicine almanacs which promoted and sold compounds as medical cures. The intersection of medicinal recipe manuscripts, pharmacopeia, herbals, botanicals and self-help manuals juxtaposed against the variety of patent medicine almanac’s promotional styles – color comic books, song books, and calendars helps students understand the continuum of ‘cures’ and the nuances of scientific inquiry coupled with the influences of social sciences and humanities.

Leonhart Fuchs. De historia stirpium commentarii insignes, 1542. Courtesy of the Wangensteen Historical Library of Biology and Medicine.

Will any digitized versions of these manuscripts be available online?

Yes! The Wangensteen recently won a grant that will allow us to digitize a subset of the recipe books. They will hopefully become available online in the next year.

That’s great news! And have you found pedagogical value in these recipe books? Do any U of M undergraduate or graduate students use these manuscripts in their coursework?

We frequently use the Mary Pewe’s recipe book in history of science and medicine courses that visit the library. It is convenient to teach with because it is in English, but more importantly, the handwriting is easy to read and students can recognize a lot of what they see in it. We always try to have it open to the page that lists a recipe from Queen Elizabeth, a name that always gets some ooh’s and aah’s. We also have an 18th-century recipe book from the southern United States that is useful in class visits. The combination of medical and culinary recipes in it forces students to reevaluate their own ideas about the intellectual space that both practices occupied.

Mary Pewe. Medical Receipts. 1637? Courtesy of the Wangensteen Historical Library of Biology and Medicine.

Emily frequently uses the recipe book collection. When she became interested in them as a genre, it was great to have access to several items from different time periods to work with for course papers. The scope of the Wangensteen Library in general has provided her with access to many supporting materials as well, such as printed recipe books, herbals, and medical manuals that early moderns probably used when compiling their manuscript recipe books. Other graduate students have used the Pewe to investigate sugar, moving beyond global trade, to thinking about its’ use and availability to the general populace as evidenced in recipe books. Still others have used it to brush up on their paleography skills of deciphering, reading, and dating historical manuscripts.

Thanks, Lois and Emily, for chatting with me! The Wangensteen Historical Library is available to students, alumni, and the general public. Please contact the Wangensteen for more information.

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Silence Dogood here. I’ve been reading a fascinating book that I discovered at a used-book store when our friend Ben and I were vacationing in scenic Asheville, North Carolina back in March. It’s called Last Dinner on the Titanic: Menus and Recipes from the Great Liner (Rick Archbold and Dana McCauley, Hyperion, 1997).

The book is packed with photos, illustrations, menus, recipes, history, and memorabilia from the Titanic (and its nearly-identical sister ship, the Olympic), recalling the style of the bygone Gilded Age and leading up to the final meals eaten in the various dining facilities on board the Titanic on the fateful evening of April 14, 1912. Mere hours later, the ship’s hull was breached by an iceberg, and what may have been the foremost symbol of an age of excess was lost.

Lost, but not forgotten, in this case. Though the film “Titanic” certainly has kept the story in the popular imagination in our own day, the illustrious passenger list (including John Jacob Astor, presumed to be the world’s wealthiest man at the time, Benjamin Guggenheim, and a host of other wealthy magnates, as well as the Unsinkable Molly Brown) assured the event immortality in its own day.

The privileged classes are rarely the ones that suffer, and the shock of so many doing so at once reverberated through every layer of society. The wealthy leaders of society in that day dominated the gossip columns and tabloids the way Lady Gaga, Brangelina, the Kardashians, and Kate Middleton do in our own day: People just couldn’t get enough of them. It would be as though every major movie star, rock star, celebrity, and member of the British Royal Family boarded a single plane that then was hit by an asteroid and went down. “Titanic” is just the latest in a steady stream of books and movies that have commemorated the disaster.

But to get back to the food. Amazingly, a copy survives of the menu served that final night in the first-class dining saloon. (And no, Jesse James and Buffalo Bill weren’t invited why a dining salon was called a saloon on the world’s most luxurious ocean liner is beyond me, but so it was.) You can therefore recreate for yourselves the ultimate luxury dining experience, especially if you have the book, which provides a preparation timeline, elaborate details about how to create invitations and place settings, the order in which the eleven-course meal should be presented, how many people you’ll need to help you, and how many days it will take (four, not counting shopping for ingredients or cleaning up afterwards) to prepare this feast in a modern home kitchen. Plus, of course, the book provides recipes.

I’m going to share that menu for you just for fun. At first, it might look more upscale but not all that different from a modern menu. But there’s one little difference: Each diner was supposed to partake of every single super-rich dish on this menu. And bear in mind that each course was served separately, then removed before the arrival of the subsequent course, quite a series of ceremonial processions, rather like a banquet at the court of Henry VIII or Louis XIV.

Now, you might choose either the consomme or the cream soup, pass on the vegetable farcie or lamb, and decide that just one type of potato was adequate, maybe even skip the ice cream. But you would be presented with every dish, and most people indulged in quite a spread. Not to mention the different wine or wines that accompanied each course. There was no concept here of getting away with “I’ll have the oysters, filet mignon, green peas and Parmentier potatoes, asparagus salad, and peaches in Chartreuse jelly, please.” Oh, no. To eat like an Astor, you’d be expected to tackle this meal in its entirety:

Nigeria's president signs law imposing up to 14 years' jail for gay relationships

Nigeria's President Goodluck Jonathan signed a bill on Monday that criminalises same-sex relationships, defying western pressure over gay rights and provoking US criticism.

The bill, which contains penalties of up to 14 years in prison and bans gay marriage, same-sex "amorous relationships" and membership of gay rights groups, was passed by the national assembly last May but Jonathan had delayed signing it into law.

A presidential spokesman told Reuters he had now done so. As in much of sub-Saharan Africa, anti-gay sentiment and persecution of homosexuals is rife in Nigeria, so the new legislation is likely to be popular. Jonathan is expected to seek re-election in 2015 but is under pressure after several dozen lawmakers and a handful of regional governors defected to the opposition in the past two months.

Under existing Nigerian federal law, sodomy is punishable by jail, but this bill legislates for a much broader crackdown on homosexual people, who live a largely underground existence.

The US secretary of state, John Kerry, said Washington was deeply concerned by the new measures.

"Beyond even prohibiting same sex marriage, this law dangerously restricts freedom of assembly . and expression for all Nigerians," he said in a statement.

"It is inconsistent with Nigeria's international legal obligations and undermines … democratic reforms and human rights protections," he said.

While European countries, most recently France, have moved to offer same-sex couples the legal rights enjoyed by heterosexuals, many African countries are seeking to tighten laws against homosexuality.

Britain and some other western countries have threatened to cut aid to governments that pass laws persecuting homosexuals, a threat that has helped hold back or scupper such legislation in aid-dependent nations such as Uganda and Malawi. But they have little leverage over Nigeria, whose budget is funded by its oil output of 2m barrels a day .

"Persons who enter into a same-sex marriage contract or civil union commit an offence and are each liable on conviction to a term of 14 years in prison," the bill says.

"Any person who registers, operates or participates in gay clubs, societies and organisations or directly or indirectly makes public show of same-sex amorous relationship in Nigeria commits an offence and shall each be liable on conviction to a term of 10 years in prison."

Новые: самая низкая цена

С самой низкой ценой, совершенно новый, неиспользованный, неоткрытый, неповрежденный товар в оригинальной упаковке (если товар поставляется в упаковке). Упаковка должна быть такой же, как упаковка этого товара в розничных магазинах, за исключением тех случаев, когда товар является изделием ручной работы или был упакован производителем в упаковку не для розничной продажи, например в коробку без маркировки или в пластиковый пакет. См. подробные сведения с дополнительным описанием товара

You can make this fragrant tea with herbs from your garden or dried herbs that you buy. Seven Flower Tea cools you down on a warm summer’s day, helping to keep you calm and soothe your digestion.

2 teaspoons chamomile flower

1 teaspoon calendula flower

1 teaspoon lavender flower

1 teaspoon honeysuckle flower

1 1/2 teaspoon passion flower

1 1/2 teaspoon orange flower or orange peel

Pour boiling water over the flowers. Allow to steep for 20 minutes. Strain. Drink.

Watch the video: Οι κάτοικοι της Νεμούτας σώζουν το χωριό τους (September 2021).