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7 Food Philosophies Only Californians Understand

7 Food Philosophies Only Californians Understand

Californians live by these philosophies on food

Sandy s’mores are something we learn to cope with at a bonfire.

1. Whenever we want one, really.

Photo Credit: Flickr/Swift Benjamin

2. An In ‘N Out burger is the Jesus of fast food burgers. And don’t you dare try to tell us your burger chain is better. Have you never heard of Animal Style?

Photo Credit: Flickr/punctuated

3. Boba tea (not Bubble Tea) is to Californians as coffee is to New Yorkers. We’re addicted. We NEED it.

Photo Credit: Instagram/theycallmeee_p

4. California avocados are superior. They just taste way better. Accept it.

Photo Credit: Flickr/Jaanus Silla

5. Sandy s’mores are something we learn to cope with at a bonfire. We pick it up and we move on.

Photo Credit: Flickr/iStock_thinkstock

6. We did frozen yogurt way before you did. And Golden Spoon is the best frozen yogurt in the world.

Photo Credit: Flickr/Katherine Lim

7. One should never eat the turkey leg at Disneyland. Nobody wants to be that guy eating a turkey leg that’s as big as a baby.

Photo Credit: Lauren Gordon

Haley Willard is The Daily Meal's assistant editor. Follow her on Twitter @haleywillrd.


How to Practice Cultural Humility in the Food System

The concept of food within a cultural context is fraught with complexity. At its very core, food is sustenance—a collection of micronutrients, macronutrients and chemicals. But, oh, it is so much more! The way in which we, as fellow humans, have eaten since the beginning of time has been shaped by numerous factors over the eons, including our tribes, communities, geography, climate, agriculture, traditions, religions, hardships, politics, economics, colonization and much more. Civilizations were founded on the simple basis of securing food, and over the centuries multiple influences converged to create the diverse food cultures that we see today around the world. From the eating styles of the Sacred Valley in Peru (focused on corn, potatoes, quinoa, and guinea pig) to the food traditions of Morocco (simmered spicy stews cooked in clay tagines and lots of sweet mint-infused green tea) to the traditional diet of Japan (staples include fish, rice, tofu, fermented vegetables, and green tea), the world is filled with glorious eating patterns that have nourished bodies, built communities, and offered joy as people come together to share meals.

As a dietitian, I know this firsthand as I work with people who cherish diverse food cultures and traditions. In the past, much emphasis has been placed on cultural competence—the ability to understand and communicate with and interact with people across cultures. That is all good and well, but now it’s time to transcend that knowledge to a higher level of cultural humility, a life-long learning process that involves our continuous self-reflection and self-critique in which we evaluate our core beliefs, values, assumptions, biases, and cultural identities.

It’s also a time to reflect upon the ways we converse about food and nutrition, considering issues like colonization, and its impact on communities’ diets and health outcomes. Another important consideration is addressing the cultural appropriation of foodways, which describes the act of using things from a culture other than your own without showing acknowledgement or respect for that culture. These reflections come at an important time, given our population in the U.S. has become more diverse, our current discourse on diversity and civil rights, and our growing familiarity with global foods and traditions.

I interviewed several experts in the field of food culture in the food system to gain insight into how we can engage in practices that are culturally respectful, humble, and appropriate.

Beyond Cultural Competency to Cultural Humility

What are some of the primary issues that you should keep in mind as you move beyond cultural competency to cultural humility? According to Deanna Belleny, MPH, RDN, Co-Founder, Diversify Dietetics and public health practitioner in Hartford, Connecticut, you should keep four main things in mind when expanding from cultural competence to cultural humility:

  1. Practicing cultural humility is a lifelong process. It’s more than educating yourself on a person’s culture, customs or food preferences. It requires you to constantly self-reflect, self-critique and become aware of your own values, culture, beliefs, biases and position in the world.
  2. Cultural humility emphasizes that you have something to learn from people. You should prioritize connecting, listening, and learning in interactions.
  3. Cultural humility prioritizes respect. Respecting people as an individual, incorporating preferences, culture, and boundaries and always involving them in any decision making.
  4. Cultural humility requires historical awareness and educating yourself on historical realities and injustices that shape today.

Denine Rogers, MS, RDN, LD, FAND, Chair of National Organization of Blacks in Dietetics and Nutrition (NOBIDAN), integrative and functional dietitian nutritionist with a private practice called Living Healthy, telemedicine nutritional consultant with Anthem, and Co-Chair of the Anthem e-Commerce Committee of APEX (African-American Professional Exchange) explains that we should understand cultural humility is a mindset that allows an individual to be open to other peoples’ preferences by demonstrating respectful inquiry and empathy. Cultural competency is a learning experience about the patterns of behavior, beliefs, language, values, and customs of particular groups. Once we understand other people’s cultures, then we can move on to cultural humility.

Cultural humility and cultural competence can exist together, says Alice Figueroa, MPH, RDN, public health, food writer, and founder of AliceinFoodieland.com. Even if we were trained in a traditional framework that focuses on cultural competence, we can still learn to incorporate aspects of cultural humility into our practice, Figueroa stresses. Traditional education programs teach about cultural competence practices that include adopting attitudes, behaviors, and policies that ensure that institutions and professionals are able to respect cultural differences. “Cultural humility asks to evolve beyond cultural competence and embody a life-long process that requires us to make a commitment to self-evaluation and self-critique about our own biases and prejudices,” says Figueroa.

Practicing Cultural Humility in the Food System

Cultural humility encompasses seeing others as individuals, not as a representative collective of a culture, race or ethnicity, says Rogers. She suggests that you should not assume to know everything about people’s cultures, beliefs, including their practices regarding diet, health, and education. “For one example, do not assume that an African American patient with hereditary coronary artery disease eats soul food when they are a healthy vegan. Ask questions to understand better their personal cultural history, experience, and beliefs,” suggests Rogers.

Sherene Chou, MS, RDN, Sustainable Food and Nutrition Consultant puts it simply: Instead of a top down approach, look to the person as the expert in their culture, life and practices. See how you can meet their needs to begin building a foundation for a strong, trusting relationship. Kimberley Greeson, PhD, researcher on biopolitics of endemic species in Hawaii, and professor of sustainability education at Prescott College, adds, “It’s not just about the food, but also the way you approach communities that are not your own. Don’t use a savior approach, but be aware that certain communities might have different needs. Be open to different protocols.” Greeson offers the example of immigrants to the U.S., and the barriers they may face because of policies that make it difficult to grow or have access to familiar foods they may have to travel very far to get food that is healthy, fresh, and in their culture.

“When working with BIPOC, it is important to know that their views, perceptions, symptoms, culture, and experiences are valid and important,” stresses Figueroa. “Work together and learn from each other. People are the experts when it comes to their personal health history, culture, symptoms, and food preferences.”

Being Mindful of Cultural Appropriation in the Food World

We also should be mindful of cultural appropriation, which occurs when we take a practice of cultural significance from one group (usually marginalized), and turn it into something that benefits another group (typically dominant), without giving credit, money, or even acknowledgment to the group of origin—ultimately erasing its meaning, says Rogers. From recipe writing to culinary education to cooking videos, there are many opportunities in the food system to wade into these harmful waters.

Belleny suggests that we ask ourselves a series of questions in our areas of practice to avoid cultural appropriation: Is it from another culture that is not our own? Have we done research to understand its origins? Are we giving credit to those origins? Are we being respectful in how we describe or deliver information? Have we engaged with someone who is more familiar with this culture than ourselves? Are we the right people to be bringing this information or creating this recipe or is there an opportunity to amplify someone else’s voice? Rogers suggests a few more questions: Are we influenced by another culture? Have we given recognition to our influences? Are we claiming other’s work as our own?

Rogers says using the term “ethnic” to refer to immigrant and native food cuisines is a classic example of cultural appropriation, which should be replaced with a greater understanding of cultural food history. Describing a region that is large and very diverse, such as “Asian” or “African,” is another example, says Belleny. Instead, learn more about the food history. Rogers shares an example of one deeper understanding of cultural food history: Slaves in the Caribbean often had to subsist on dried fish since they were denied the opportunity to catch fresh fish, thus many traditional Caribbean dishes are based on salt cod, such as Jamaican saltfish and ackee.

“Avoid generalizing people, customs, and food names by broad cultural categories, says Chou. “This assumes that cultures, races, ethnic groups are monoliths without understanding the people or the cultures behind them and allowing the lack of distinction as a method of erasure.”

A specific area to focus on is recipe development. “It is important to always acknowledge and recognize when recipes are adapted or inspired by BIPOC cultural recipes and food traditions. When you use ingredients that are native to a particular culture it is essential to learn the history of the ingredients and to share that history,” says Figueroa. She offers an example of creating a chickpea curry with coconut milk that is inspired by South Indian cooking it is important to acknowledge that you were inspired by Kerala, South India food traditions. Or when we talk about eating cornbread and squash during the holidays, we can educate about the importance of corn and squash to Native American and indigenous communities. “We can make sure that people are aware of the crucial role BIPOC communities played in shaping our food system and enriching the foods available for use to eat,” says Figueroa.

Sherene Chou adds that in recipe writing and culinary education, we can show cultural appreciation. “People often eliminate the culture and take their own twist, leaving out critical information that can be a learning and teaching moment. When describing a cultural dish, take time to learn about the history and culture and showcase how foods are traditionally grown, prepared, and consumed. This is an opportunity to celebrate culture.” Greeson adds, “Don’t pretend you discovered it instead shift to expanding on its history and ethnobotany. There are examples of ingredients that people are profiting from, without fully understanding its cultural sacredness, which minimizes its significance.

Greeson stresses that if you know better, you can do better, adding, “Admit that you’ve done cultural appropriation, own it, move on, and learn.” She explains that it is a really thin line between cultural appreciation and appropriation. “It comes down to the idea of power—if folks in power of a majority identity are using traditional knowledge of other foods from a marginalized or oppressed community, or ripping it off and not giving credit to it, that’s appropriation. For example, a lot of foods in my Chinese culture are appropriated Chinese medicine was demonized, but now it’s in vogue and popular in the Western community. Now it’s become acceptable and monetized.”

One way you can address the issue is to bring someone in, whether it’s a chef, expert, or BIPOC dietitian, rather than claiming that expertise. “Don’t come across as an expert in a different food culture. It’s great to talk about history and how it’s been modified and what your interpretation is, but refer to experts that have a platform. Pass the mic rather than speak for other people bring in other voices and highlight them. Use that commodity and capital and share it,” adds Greeson.

Learning About Decolonizing Foodways

With a greater understanding of food culture and history, comes a greater appreciation for how indigenous food traditions have been altered due to colonization. “Decolonizing foodways is an essential practice because the colonization of indigenous communities has stripped them of their power and has created a deepening reliance on the government for survival,” says Rogers.

Greeson encourages us to look at issues of food sovereignty and ways to re-envision foodways to address issues like land, culture, and health issues. She adds, “We, as settlers, have forcibly displaced many indigenous people of this country. In the shifting of the Cherokee from the Southeast to Oklahoma, for example, cultural foods shifted they couldn’t can’t rely on traditional foods and received foods from the government. For the Navajo, fry bread became popular. In Hawaii, spam became popular because the government gave it to people to eat. This is an issue about reclaiming a connection to the land, traditional ways of growing food relationships to food, land access, land health, and ecosystems and native health, spiritual and mental well-being.”

The first step in decolonizing foodways so that you may be more effective at providing support for BIPOC communities is to acknowledge the impact of colonization, imperialism and slavery on issues like food access, malnutrition, food insecurity, and overall health, stresses Figueroa. She also notes that we may have shortcomings, since our personal and professional experiences—even nutrition research—are influenced by institutions that are a product of colonization.

One way to better understand this concept is to look at the history of the foodways in indigenous communities. Rodgers shares the story of Native American Indians on reservations. “In 1890, the federal government decided to restrict Native Americans Indians from leaving their reservations to hunt, fish, or gather local foods—all traditional ways of procuring their food. Instead, they received an allotment of food from the government. These rations were all nutritionally empty foods like sugar, flour, and lard. Over time, processed foods high in sugar and white flour became the norm in Native communities. This one oppressive act altered the future health of all Native Americans. Currently, there is a surge of learning, teaching, and implementing Native American Indians’ cultural foods dishes in some of the reservations in order to reverse the health disparities that continue in these communities.”

This issue can be countered by learning the traditional foodways of indigenous communities. Figueroa encourages dietitians to make nutrition more culturally humble and to take into account the perspectives, stories, recipes, food traditions, eating preferences, and experiences of BIPOC.

Putting Cultural Humility into Practice

In what areas in the food system should we be particularly mindful of cultural humility? One area is the way diverse cultural foods are portrayed. Figueroa suggests that we be careful not to portray foods from diverse cultures as “greasy”, “dirty”, or “unhealthy”. Thus, the term “clean” eating can be troublesome in this respect. The idea that we need to take a Chinese, Indian Ethiopian, Egyptian, Mexican or Guatemalan recipe and make it “clean” in order for it to be health-supportive implies that it is intrinsically dirty and unhealthy, says Figueroa. Rogers notes that some may say that soul food dishes are very unhealthy, but if someone learned its history, they would appreciate how African Americans survived with very little that was given to them during slavery.

Ironically, many of the “superfoods” that the wellness and nutrition world cherish are indigenous foods, says Figueroa. “Likewise, we should understand that indigenous and black communities developed the agricultural, farming, and cooking practices and traditions that make it possible for us to enjoy nutritious foods like quinoa, cacao, chia seeds, moringa, açai berries, sacha inchi, maca, amaranth, and lucuma, among others. It is important for us to be leaders in the food system who seek solutions on how to responsibly and sustainably consume these delicious and nutritious indigenous foods while honoring and supporting indigenous communities.”

Even how we consider “healthism” is an opportunity to cultivate cultural humility. “Healthism is essentially the belief that individuals are ultimately responsible for their health and they should pursue health because it’s the right thing to do. The same could be said about what American culture has deemed as a ‘healthy diet’. The spaces that create these rules are often not diverse and inclusive, from research and academic spaces to media and communications. What is deemed healthy comes with a fare share of bias. Let’s be critical of the information we take in, let’s do more listening and less instructing, let’s center and uplift the voices and experiences of people, and let’s advocate for social justice because there is so much more to health than food and physical activity,” says Belleny.

Greeson adds that we may need to rethink what we learned in school, which is based on a Western paradigm of thinking, and that the nutrition models might not be reflective of genetics from some communities, with strong tradition and culture. For example, Greeson shares the example of being open to traditions in her own Chinese American culture, such as the use of herbs and certain foods. “Look at the complexities of diabetes in minoritized populations, where policies forced them to relocate and exist on government-rationed food. How can we create pathways to food sovereignty, were people can be in charge of their own food, and how dietitians can work within that framework?” It’s also important to consider that in some cultures, foods like cheeseburgers, alcohol, and dairy products weren’t in their diets so long ago, and that we should be mindful of genetics.

Rogers also reminds us to be mindful of the lack of access to certain foods. People in urban areas often have no access to fresh food because it may be a food desert, with no grocery stores available. Likewise, rural residents in the agricultural areas may not be able to afford to buy the same food they can harvest.

Top Tips for Practicing Cultural Humility

These experts provide the following tips for practicing cultural humility in the food system.


CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

The information on this page is current as of April 1 2020.

For the most up-to-date version of CFR Title 21, go to the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations (eCFR).

Subpart A - General Provisions

Sec. 101.12 Reference amounts customarily consumed per eating occasion.

(a) The general principles and factors that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considered in arriving at the reference amounts customarily consumed per eating occasion (reference amounts) which are set forth in paragraph (b) of this section, are that:

(1) FDA calculated the reference amounts for persons 4 years of age or older to reflect the amount of food customarily consumed per eating occasion by persons in this population group. These reference amounts are based on data set forth in appropriate national food consumption surveys.

(2) FDA calculated the reference amounts for an infant or child under 4 years of age to reflect the amount of food customarily consumed per eating occasion by infants up to 12 months of age or by children 1 through 3 years of age, respectively. These reference amounts are based on data set forth in appropriate national food consumption surveys. Such reference amounts are to be used only when the food is specially formulated or processed for use by an infant or by a child under 4 years of age.

(3) An appropriate national food consumption survey includes a large sample size representative of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the relevant population group and must be based on consumption data under actual conditions of use.

(4) To determine the amount of food customarily consumed per eating occasion, FDA considered the mean, median, and mode of the consumed amount per eating occasion.

(5) When survey data were insufficient, FDA took various other sources of information on serving sizes of food into consideration. These other sources of information included:

(i) Serving sizes used in dietary guidance recommendations or recommended by other authoritative systems or organizations

(ii) Serving sizes recommended in comments

(iii) Serving sizes used by manufacturers and grocers and

(iv) Serving sizes used by other countries.

(6) Because they reflect the amount customarily consumed, the reference amount and, in turn, the serving size declared on the product label are based on only the edible portion of food, and not bone, seed, shell, or other inedible components.

(7) The reference amount is based on the major intended use of the food (e.g., milk as a beverage and not as an addition to cereal).

(8) The reference amounts for products that are consumed as an ingredient of other foods, but that may also be consumed in the form in which they are purchased (e.g., butter), are based on use in the form purchased.

(9) FDA sought to ensure that foods that have similar dietary usage, product characteristics, and customarily consumed amounts have a uniform reference amount.

(b) The following reference amounts shall be used as the basis for determining serving sizes for specific products:

Table 1 - Reference Amounts Customarily Consumed per Eating Occasion: Foods for Infants and Young Children 1 Through 3 Years of Age 1 2 3

Product category Reference amount Label statement 4
Cereals, dry instant15 g_ cup (_ g)
Cereals, prepared, ready-to-serve110 g_ cup(s) (_ g)
Other cereal and grain products, dry ready-to-eat, e.g., ready-to-eat cereals, cookies, teething biscuits, and toasts7 g for infants and 20 g for young children (1 through 3 years of age) for ready-to-eat cereals 7 g for all others_ cup(s) (_ g) for ready-to-eat cereals piece(s) (_ g) for others
Dinners, deserts, fruits, vegetables or soups, dry mix15 g_ tbsp(s) (_ g) _ cup(s) (_ g)
Dinners, desserts, fruits, vegetables or soups, ready-to-serve, junior type110 g_ cup(s) (_ g) cup(s) (_ mL)
Dinners, desserts, fruits, vegetables or soups, ready-to-serve, strained type110 g_ cup(s) (_ g) cup(s) (_ mL)
Dinners, stews or soups for young children, ready-to-serve170 g_ cup(s) (_ g) cup(s) (_ mL)
Fruits for young children, ready-to-serve125 g_ cup(s) (_ g)
Vegetables for young children, ready-to-serve70 g_ cup(s) (_ g)
Eggs/egg yolks, ready-to serve55 g_ cup(s) (_ g)
Juices all varieties120 mL4 fl oz (120 mL)

1 These values represent the amount of food customarily consumed per eating occasion and were primarily derived from the 1977-1978 and the 1987-1988 Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. We further considered data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008 conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

2 Unless otherwise noted in the reference amount column, the reference amounts are for the ready-to-serve or almost ready-to-serve form of the product (e.g., heat and serve, brown and serve). If not listed separately, the reference amount for the unprepared form (e.g., dry mixes, concentrates, dough, batter, fresh and frozen pasta) is the amount required to make the reference amount of the prepared form. Prepared means prepared for consumption (e.g., cooked).

3 Manufacturers are required to convert the reference amount to the label serving size in a household measure most appropriate to their specific product using the procedures in 21 CFR 101.9(b).

4 The label statements are meant to provide examples of serving size statements that may be used on the label, but the specific wording may be changed as appropriate for individual products. The term "piece" is used as a generic description of a discrete unit. Manufacturers should use the description of a unit that is most appropriate for the specific product (e.g., sandwich for sandwiches, cookie for cookies, and bar for frozen novelties).

Table 2 - Reference Amounts Customarily Consumed Per Eating Occasion: General Food Supply 1 2 3

Product category Reference amount Label statement 4
Bakery Products:
Bagels, toaster pastries, muffins (excluding English muffins)110 g_ piece(s) (_ g)
Biscuits, croissants, tortillas, soft bread sticks, soft pretzels, corn bread, hush puppies, scones, crumpets, English muffins55 g_ piece(s) (_ g)
Breads (excluding sweet quick type), rolls50 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for sliced bread and distinct pieces (e.g., rolls) 2 oz (56 g/_ inch slice) for unsliced bread
Bread sticks - see crackers
Toaster pastries - see bagels, toaster pastries, muffins (excluding English muffins)
Brownies40 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for distinct pieces fractional slice (_ g) for bulk
Cakes, heavyweight (cheese cake pineapple upside-down cake fruit, nut, and vegetable cakes with more than or equal to 35 percent of the finished weight as fruit, nuts, or vegetables or any of these combinations) 5 125 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for distinct pieces (e.g., sliced or individually packaged products) _ fractional slice (_ g) for large discrete units
Cakes, mediumweight (chemically leavened cake with or without icing or filling except those classified as light weight cake fruit, nut, and vegetable cake with less than 35 percent of the finished weight as fruit, nuts, or vegetables or any of these combinations light weight cake with icing Boston cream pie cupcake eclair cream puff) 6 80 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for distinct pieces (e.g., cupcake) _ fractional slice (_ g) for large discrete units
Cakes, lightweight (angel food, chiffon, or sponge cake without icing or filling) 7 55 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for distinct pieces (e.g., sliced or individually packaged products) _ fractional slice (_ g) for large discrete units
Coffee cakes, crumb cakes, doughnuts, Danish, sweet rolls, sweet quick type breads55 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for sliced bread and distinct pieces (e.g., doughnut) 2 oz (56 g/visual unit of measure) for bulk products (e.g., unsliced bread)
Cookies30 g_ piece(s) (_ g)
Crackers that are usually not used as snack, melba toast, hard bread sticks, ice cream cones 8 15 g_ piece(s) (_ g)
Crackers that are usually used as snacks30 g_ piece(s) (_ g)
Croutons7 g_ tbsp(s) (_ g) _ cup(s) (_ g) _ piece(s) (_ g) for large pieces
Eggroll, dumpling, wonton, or potsticker wrappers20 g_ sheet (_ g) wrapper (_ g)
French toast, crepes, pancakes, variety mixes110 g prepaed for French toast, crepes, and pancakes 40 g dry mix for variety mixes_ piece(s) (_ g) _ cup(s) (_ g) for dry mix
Grain-based bars with or without filling or coating, e.g., breakfast bars, granola bars, rice cereal bars40 g_ piece(s) (_ g)
Ice cream cones - see crackers
Pies, cobblers, fruit crisps, turnovers, other pastries125 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for distinct pieces _ fractional slice (_ g) for large discrete units
Pie crust, pie shells, pastry sheets, (e.g., phyllo, puff pastry sheets)the allowable declaration closest to an 8 square inch surface area_ fractional slice(s) (_ g) for large discrete units _ shells (_ g) _ fractional _ sheet(s) (_ g) for distinct pieces (e.g., Pastry sheet).
Pizza crust55 g_ fractional slice (_ g)
Taco shells, hard30 g_ shell(s) (_ g)
Waffles85 g_ piece(s) (_ g)
Beverages:
Carbonated and noncarbonated beverages, wine coolers, water360 mL12 fl oz (360 mL)
Coffee or tea, flavored and sweetened360 mL prepared12 fl oz (360 mL)
Cereals and Other Grain Products:
Breakfast cereals (hot cereal type), hominy grits1 cup prepared 40 g plain dry cereal 55 g flavored, sweetened cereal_ cup(s) (_ g)
Breakfast cereals, ready-to-eat, weighing less than 20 g per cup, e.g., plain puffed cereal grains15 g_ cup(s) (_ g)
Breakfast cereals, ready-to-eat, weighing 20 g or more but less than 43 g per cup high fiber cereals containing 28 g or more of fiber per 100 g40 g_ cup(s) (_ g)
Breakfast cereals, ready-to-eat, weighing 43 g or more per cup biscuit types60 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for large distinct pieces (e.g., biscuit type) _ cup(s) (_ g) for all others
Bran or wheat germ15 g_ tbsp(s) (_ g) _ cup(s) (_ g)
Flours or cornmeal30 g_ tbsp(s) (_ g) _ cup(s) (_ g)
Grains, e.g., rice, barley, plain140 g prepared 45 g dry_ cup(s) (_ g)
Pastas, plain140 g prepared 55 g dry_ cup(s) (_ g) _ piece(s) (_ g) for large pieces (e.g., large shells or lasagna noodles) or 2 oz (56 g/visual unit of measure) for dry bulk products (e.g., spaghetti)
Pastas, dry, ready-to-eat, e.g., fried canned chow mein noodles25 g_ cup(s) (_ g)
Starches, e.g., cornstarch, potato starch, tapioca, etc10 g_ tbsp (_ g)
Stuffing100 g_ cup(s) (_ g)
Dairy Products and Substitutes:
Cheese, cottage110 g_ cup (_ g)
Cheese used primarily as ingredients, e.g., dry cottage cheese, ricotta cheese55 g_ cup (_ g)
Cheese, grated hard, e.g., Parmesan, Romano5 g_ tbsp (_ g)
Cheese, all others except those listed as separate categories - includes cream cheese and cheese spread30 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for distinct pieces _ tbsp(s) (_ g) for cream cheese and cheese spread 1 oz (28 g/visual unit of measure) for bulk
Cheese sauce - see sauce category
Cream or cream substitutes, fluid15 mL1 tbsp (15 mL)
Cream or cream substitutes, powder2 g_ tsp (_ g)
Cream, half & half30 mL2 tbsp (30 mL)
Eggnog120 mL 1/2 cup (120 mL) 4 fl oz (120 mL)
Milk, condensed, undiluted30 mL2 tbsp (30 mL)
Milk, evaporated, undiluted30 mL2 tbsp (30 mL)
Milk, milk-substitute beverages, milk-based drinks, e.g., instant breakfast, meal replacement, cocoa, soy beverage240 mL1 cup (240 mL) 8 fl oz (240 mL)
Shakes or shake substitutes, e.g., dairy shake mixes, fruit frost mixes240 mL1 cup (240 mL) 8 fl oz (240 mL)
Sour cream30 g_ tbsp (_ g)
Yogurt170 g_ cup (_ g)
Desserts:
Ice cream, frozen yogurt, sherbet, frozen flavored and sweetened ice and pops, frozen fruit juices: all types bulk and novelties (e.g., bars, sandwiches, cones, cups) 2/3 cup - includes the volume for coatings and wafers 2/3 cup (_ g), _ piece(s) (_ g) for individually wrapped or packaged products
Sundae1 cup1 cup (_ g)
Custards, gelatin, or pudding 1/2 cup prepared amount to make 1/2 cup prepared when dry_ piece(s) (_ g) for distinct unit (e.g., individually packaged products) 1/2 cup (_ g) for bulk
Dessert Toppings and Fillings:
Cake frostings or icings2 tbsp_ tbsp(s) (_ g)
Other dessert toppings, e.g., fruits, syrups, spreads, marshmallow cream, nuts, dairy and non-dairy whipped toppings2 tbsp2 tbsp (_ g) 2 tbsp (30 mL)
Pie fillings85 g_ cup(s) (_ g)
Egg and Egg Substitutes:
Egg mixtures, e.g., egg foo young, scrambled eggs, omelets110 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for discrete pieces _ cup(s) (_ g)
Eggs (all sizes) 8 50 g1 large, medium, etc. (_ g)
Egg whites, sugared eggs, sugared egg yolks, and egg substitutes (fresh, frozen, dried)An amount to make 1 large (50 g) egg_ cup(s) (_ g) _ cup(s) (_ mL)
Fats and Oils:
Butter, margarine, oil, shortening1 tbsp1 tbsp (_ g) 1 tbsp (15 mL)
Butter replacement, powder2 g_ tsp(s) (_ g)
Dressings for salads30 g_ tbsp (_ g) _ tbsp (_ mL)
Mayonnaise, sandwich spreads, mayonnaise-type dressings15 g_ tbsp (_ g)
Spray types0.25 gAbout _ seconds spray (_ g)
Fish, Shellfish, Game Meats, 9 and Meat or Poultry Substitutes:
Bacon substitutes, canned anchovies, 10 anchovy pastes, caviar15 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for discrete pieces _ tbsp(s) (_ g) for others
Dried, e.g., jerky30 g_ piece(s) (_ g)
Entrees with sauce, e.g., fish with cream sauce, shrimp with lobster sauce140 g cooked_ cup(s) (_ g) 5 oz (140 g/visual unit of measure) if not measurable by cup
Entrees without sauce, e.g., plain or fried fish and shellfish, fish and shellfish cake85 g cooked 110 g uncooked 11 _ piece(s) (_ g) for discrete pieces _ cup(s) (_ g) _ oz (_ g/visual unit of measure) if not measurable by cup 12
Fish, shellfish, or game meat 9 , canned 10 85 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for discrete pieces _ cup(s) (_ g) 3 oz (85 g/_ cup) for products that are difficult to measure the g weight of cup measure (e.g., tuna) 3 oz (85 g/_ pieces) for products that naturally vary in size (e.g., sardines)
Substitute for luncheon meat, meat spreads, Canadian bacon, sausages, frankfurters, and seafood55 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for distinct pieces (e.g., slices, links) _ cup(s) (_ g) 2 oz (56 g/visual unit of measure) for nondiscrete bulk product
Smoked or pickled fish, 10 shellfish, or game meat 9 fish or shellfish spread55 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for distinct pieces (e.g., slices, links) or _ cup(s) (_ g) 2 oz (56 g/visual unit of measure) for nondiscrete bulk product
Substitutes for bacon bits - see Miscellaneous
Fruits and Fruit Juices:
Candied or pickled 10 30 g_ piece(s) (_ g)
Dehydrated fruits - see snack category
Dried40 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for large pieces (e.g., dates, figs, prunes) _ cup(s) (_ g) for small pieces (e.g., raisins)
Fruits for garnish or flavor, e.g., maraschino cherries 10 4 g1 cherry (_ g) _ piece(s) (_ g)
Fruit relishes, e.g., cranberry sauce, cranberry relish70 g_ cup(s) (_ g)
Fruits used primarily as ingredients, avocado50 gSee footnote 12
Fruits used primarily as ingredients, others (cranberries, lemon, lime)50 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for large fruits _ cup(s) (_ g) for small fruits measurable by cup 12
Watermelon280 gSee footnote 12
All other fruits (except those listed as separate categories), fresh, canned or frozen140 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for large pieces (e.g., strawberries, prunes, apricots, etc.) _ cup(s) (_ g) for small pieces (e.g., blueberries, raspberries, etc.) 12
Juices, nectars, fruit drinks240 mL8 fl oz (240 mL)
Juices used as ingredients, e.g., lemon juice, lime juice5 mL1 tsp (5 mL)
Legumes:
Tofu, 10 tempeh85 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for discrete pieces 3 oz (84 g/visual unit of measure) for bulk products
Beans, plain or in sauce130 g for beans in sauce or canned in liquid and refried beans prepared 90 g for others prepared 35 g dry_ cup (_ g)
Miscellaneous:
Baking powder, baking soda, pectin0.6 g_ tsp (_ g)
Baking decorations, e.g., colored sugars and sprinkles for cookies, cake decorations1 tsp or 4 g if not measurable by teaspoon_ piece(s) (_ g) for discrete pieces 1 tsp (_ g)
Batter mixes, bread crumbs30 g_ tbsp(s) (_ g) _ cup(s) (_ g)
Chewing gum 8 3 g_ piece(s) (_ g)
Cocoa powder, carob powder, unsweetened1 tbsp1 tbsp (_ g)
Cooking wine30 mL2 tbsp (30 mL)
Dietary supplementsThe maximum amount recommended, as appropriate, on the label for consumption per eating occasion or, in the absence of recommendations, 1 unit, e.g., tablet, capsule, packet, teaspoonful, etc_ tablet(s), _ capsules(s), _ packet(s), _ tsp(s) (_ g), etc.
Meat, poultry, and fish coating mixes, dry seasoning mixes, dry, e.g., chili seasoning mixes, pasta salad seasoning mixesAmount to make one reference amount of final dish_ tsp(s) (_ g) _ tbsp(s) (_ g)
Milk, milk substitute, and fruit juice concentrates (without alcohol) (e.g., drink mixers, frozen fruit juice concentrate, sweetened cocoa powder)Amount to make 240 mL drink (without ice)_ fl oz (_ mL) _ tsp (_ g) tbsp (_ g)
Drink mixes (without alcohol): All other types (e.g., flavored syrups and powdered drink mixes)Amount to make 360 mL drink (without ice)_ fl oz (_ mL) _ tsp (_ g) _ tbsp (_ g)
Salad and potato toppers, e.g., salad crunchies, salad crispins, substitutes for bacon bits7 g_ tbsp(s) (_ g)
Salt, salt substitutes, seasoning salts (e.g., garlic salt) 1/4 tsp 1/4 tsp (_ g) _ piece(s) (_ g) for discrete pieces (e.g., individually packaged products)
Seasoning oils and seasoning sauces (e.g., coconut concentrate, sesame oil, almond oil, chili oil, coconut oil, walnut oil)1 tbsp1 tbsp (_ g)
Seasoning pastes (e.g., garlic paste, ginger paste, curry paste, chili paste, miso paste), fresh or frozen1 tsp1 tsp (_ g)
Spices, herbs (other than dietary supplements) 1/4 tsp or 0.5 g if not measurable by teaspoon 1/4 tsp (_ g) _ piece(s) (_ g) if not measurable by teaspoons (e.g., bay leaf)
Mixed Dishes:
Appetizers, hors d'oeuvres, mini mixed dishes, e.g., mini bagel pizzas, breaded mozzarella sticks, egg rolls, dumplings, potstickers, wontons, mini quesadillas, mini quiches, mini sandwiches, mini pizza rolls, potato skins85 g, add 35 g for products with gravy or sauce topping_ piece(s) (_ g)
Measurable with cup, e.g., casseroles, hash, macaroni and cheese, pot pies, spaghetti with sauce, stews, etc1 cup1 cup (_ g)
Not measurable with cup, e.g., burritos, enchiladas, pizza, pizza rolls, quiche, all types of sandwiches140 g, add 55 g for products with gravy or sauce topping, e.g., enchilada with cheese sauce, crepe with white sauce 13 _ piece(s) (_ g) for discrete pieces _ fractional slice (_ g) for large discrete units
Nuts and Seeds:
Nuts, seeds and mixtures, all types: Sliced, chopped, slivered, and whole30 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for large pieces (e.g., unshelled nuts) _ tbsp(s) (_ g) _ cup(s) (_ g) for small pieces (e.g., peanuts, sunflower seeds)
Nut and seed butters, pastes, or creams2 tbsp2 tbsp (_ g)
Coconut, nut and seed flours15 g_ tbsp(s) (_ g) _ cup (_ g)
Potatoes and Sweet Potatoes/Yams:
French fries, hash browns, skins, or pancakes70 g prepared 85 g for frozen unprepared French fries_ piece(s) (_ g) for large distinct pieces (e.g., patties, skins) 2.5 oz (70 g/_ pieces) for prepared fries 3 oz (84 g/_ pieces) for unprepared fries
Mashed, candied, stuffed or with sauce140 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for discrete pieces (e.g., stuffed potato) _ cup(s) (_ g)
Plain, fresh, canned, or frozen110 g for fresh or frozen 125 g for vacuum packed 160 g for canned in liquid_ piece(s) (_ g) for discrete pieces _ cup(s) (_ g) for sliced or chopped products
Salads:
Gelatin salad120 g_ cup (_ g)
Pasta or potato salad140 g_ cup(s) (_ g)
All other salads, e.g., egg, fish, shellfish, bean, fruit, or vegetable salads100 g_ cup(s) (_ g)
Sauces, Dips, Gravies, and Condiments:
Barbecue sauce, hollandaise sauce, tartar sauce, tomato chili sauce, other sauces for dipping (e.g., mustard sauce, sweet and sour sauce), all dips (e.g., bean dips, dairy-based dips, salsa)2 tbsp2 tbsp (_ g) 2 tbsp (30 mL)
Major main entree sauces, e.g., spaghetti sauce125 g_ cup (_ g) _ cup (_ mL)
Minor main entree sauces (e.g., pizza sauce, pesto sauce, Alfredo sauce), other sauces used as toppings (e.g., gravy, white sauce, cheese sauce), cocktail sauce 1/4 cup 1/4 cup (_ g) 1/4 cup (60 mL)
Major condiments, e.g., catsup, steak sauce, soy sauce, vinegar, teriyaki sauce, marinades1 tbsp1 tbsp (_ g) 1 tbsp (15 mL)
Minor condiments, e.g., horseradish, hot sauces, mustards, Worcestershire sauce1 tsp1 tsp (_ g) 1 tsp (5 mL)
Snacks:
All varieties, chips, pretzels, popcorn, extruded snacks, fruit and vegetable-based snacks (e.g., fruit chips), grain-based snack mixes30 g_ cup (_ g) for small pieces (e.g., popcorn) _ piece(s) (_ g) for large pieces (e.g., large pretzels pressed dried fruit sheet) 1 oz (28g/visual unit of measure) for bulk products (e.g., potato chips)
Soups:
All varieties245 g_ cup (_ g) _ cup (_ mL)
Dry soup mixes, bouillonAmount to make 245 g_ cup (_ g) _ cup (_ mL)
Sugars and Sweets:
Baking candies (e.g., chips)15 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for large pieces _ tbsp(s) (_ g) for small pieces 1/2 oz (14 g/visual unit of measure) for bulk products
After-dinner confectioneries10 g_ piece(s) (_ g)
Hard candies, breath mints 8 2 g_ piece(s) (_ g)
Hard candies, roll-type, mini-size in dispenser packages5 g_ piece(s) (_ g)
Hard candies, others powdered candies, liquid candies15 mL for liquid candies 15 g for all others_ piece(s) (_ g) for large pieces _ tbsp(s) (_ g) for "mini-size" candies measurable by tablespoon _ straw(s) (_ g) for powdered candies _ wax bottle(s) (_ mL) for liquid candies 1/2 oz (14 g/visual unit of measure) for bulk products
All other candies30 g_ piece(s) (_ g) 1 oz (30 g/visual unit of measure) for bulk products
Confectioner's sugar30 g_ cup (_ g)
Honey, jams, jellies, fruit butter, molasses, fruit pastes, fruit chutneys1 tbsp1 tbsp (_ g) 1 tbsp (15 mL)
Marshmallows30 g_ cup(s) (_ g) for small pieces _ piece(s) (_ g) for large pieces
Sugar8 g_ tsp (_ g) _ piece(s) (_ g) for discrete pieces (e.g., sugar cubes, individually packaged products)
Sugar substitutesAn amount equivalent to one reference amount for sugar in sweetness_ tsp(s) (_ g) for solids _ drop(s) (_ g) for liquid _ piece(s) (_ g) (e.g., individually packaged products)
Syrups30 mL for all syrups2 tbsp (30 mL)
Vegetables:
Dried vegetables, dried tomatoes, sun-dried tomatoes, dried mushrooms, dried seaweed5 g, add 5 g for products packaged in oil_ piece(s) 1/3 cup (_ g)
Dried seaweed sheets3 g_ piece(s) (_ g) _ cup(s) (_ g)
Vegetables primarily used for garnish or flavor (e.g., pimento, 10 parsley, fresh or dried)4 g_ piece(s) (_ g) _ tbsp(s) (_ g) for chopped products
Fresh or canned chili peppers, jalapeno peppers, other hot peppers, green onion30 g_ piece(s) (_ g) 12 _ tbsp(s) (_ g) _ cup(s) (_ g) for sliced or chopped products
All other vegetables without sauce: Fresh, canned, or frozen85 g for fresh or frozen 95 g for vacuum packed 130 g for canned in liquid, cream-style corn, canned or stewed tomatoes, pumpkin, or winter squash_ piece(s) (_ g) for large pieces (e.g., Brussels sprouts) _ cup(s) (_ g) for small pieces (e.g., cut corn, green peas) 3 oz (84 g/visual unit of measure) if not measurable by cup
All other vegetables with sauce: Fresh, canned, or frozen110 g_ piece(s) (_ g) for large pieces (e.g., Brussels sprouts) _ cup(s) (_ g) for small pieces (e.g., cut corn, green peas) 4 oz (112 g/visual unit of measure) if not measurable by cup
Vegetable juice240 mL8 fl oz (240 mL)
Olives 10 15 g_ piece(s) (_ g) _ tbsp(s) (_ g) for sliced products
Pickles and pickled vegetables, all types 10 30 g1 oz (28 g/visual unit of measure)
Pickle relishes15 g_ tbsp (_ g)
Sprouts, all types: Fresh or canned1/4 cup 1/4 cup (_ g)
Vegetable pastes, e.g., tomato paste30 g_ tbsp (_ g)
Vegetable sauces or purees, e.g., tomato sauce, tomato puree60 g_ cup (_ g) _ cup (_ mL)

1 These values represent the amount (edible portion) of food customarily consumed per eating occasion and were primarily derived from the 1977-1978 and the 1987-1988 Nationwide Food Consumption Surveys conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and updated with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004, 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 conducted by the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, in the Department of Health and Human Services.

2 Unless otherwise noted in the Reference Amount column, the reference amounts are for the ready-to-serve or almost ready-to-serve form of the product (e.g., heat and serve, brown and serve). If not listed separately, the reference amount for the unprepared form (e.g., dry mixes, concentrates, dough, batter, fresh and frozen pasta) is the amount required to make the reference amount of the prepared form. Prepared means prepared for consumption (e.g., cooked).

3 Manufacturers are required to convert the reference amount to the label serving size in a household measure most appropriate to their specific product using the procedures in 21 CFR 101.9(b).

4 The label statements are meant to provide examples of serving size statements that may be used on the label, but the specific wording may be changed as appropriate for individual products. The term "piece" is used as a generic description of a discrete unit. Manufacturers should use the description of a unit that is most appropriate for the specific product (e.g., sandwich for sandwiches, cookie for cookies, and bar for ice cream bars). The guidance provided is for the label statement of products in ready-to-serve or almost ready-to-serve form. The guidance does not apply to the products which require further preparation for consumption (e.g., dry mixes, concentrates) unless specifically stated in the product category, reference amount, or label statement column that it is for these forms of the product. For products that require further preparation, manufacturers must determine the label statement following the rules in § 101.9(b) using the reference amount determined according to § 101.12(c).

5 Includes cakes that weigh 10 g or more per cubic inch. The serving size for fruitcake is 1 1/2 ounces.

6 Includes cakes that weigh 4 g or more per cubic inch but less than 10 g per cubic inch.

7 Includes cakes that weigh less than 4 g per cubic inch.

8 Label serving size for ice cream cones, eggs, and breath mints of all sizes will be 1 unit. Label serving size of all chewing gums that weigh more than the reference amount that can reasonably be consumed at a single-eating occasion will be 1 unit.

9 Animal products not covered under the Federal Meat Inspection Act or the Poultry Products Inspection Act, such as flesh products from deer, bison, rabbit, quail, wild turkey, geese, ostrich, etc.

10 If packed or canned in liquid, the reference amount is for the drained solids, except for products in which both the solids and liquids are customarily consumed (e.g., canned chopped clam in juice).

11 The reference amount for the uncooked form does not apply to raw fish in § 101.45 or to single-ingredient products that consist of fish or game meat as provided for in § 101.9(j)(11).

12 For raw fruit, vegetables, and fish, manufacturers should follow the label statement for the serving size specified in Appendices C and D to part 101 (21 CFR part 101) Code of Federal Regulations.

13 Pizza sauce is part of the pizza and is not considered to be sauce topping.

(c) If a product requires further preparation, e.g., cooking or the addition of water or other ingredients, and if paragraph (b) of this section provides a reference amount for the product in the prepared form, but not the unprepared form, then the reference amount for the unprepared product must be the amount of the unprepared product required to make the reference amount for the prepared product as established in paragraph (b) of this section.

(d) The reference amount for an imitation or substitute food or altered food, such as a "low calorie" version, shall be the same as for the food for which it is offered as a substitute.

(e) If a food is modified by incorporating air (aerated), and thereby the density of the food is lowered by 25 percent or more in weight than that of an appropriate reference regular food as described in § 101.13(j)(1)(ii)(A), and the reference amount of the regular food is in grams, the manufacturer may determine the reference amount of the aerated food by adjusting for the difference in density of the aerated food relative to the density of the appropriate reference food provided that the manufacturer will show FDA detailed protocol and records of all data that were used to determine the density-adjusted reference amount for the aerated food. The reference amount for the aerated food shall be rounded to the nearest 5-g increment. Such products shall bear a descriptive term indicating that extra air has been incorporated (e.g., whipped, aerated). The density-adjusted reference amounts described in paragraph (b) of this section may not be used for cakes except for cheese cake. The differences in the densities of different types of cakes having different degrees of air incorporation have already been taken into consideration in determining the reference amounts for cakes in § 101.12(b). In determining the difference in density of the aerated and the regular food, the manufacturer shall adhere to the following:

(1) The regular and the aerated product must be the same in size, shape, and volume. To compare the densities of products having nonsmooth surfaces (e.g., waffles), manufacturers shall use a device or method that ensures that the volumes of the regular and the aerated products are the same.

(2) Sample selections for the density measurements shall be done in accordance with the provisions in § 101.9(g).

(3) Density measurements of the regular and the aerated products shall be conducted by the same trained operator using the same methodology (e.g., the same equipment, procedures, and techniques) under the same conditions.

(4) Density measurements shall be replicated a sufficient number of times to ensure that the average of the measurements is representative of the true differences in the densities of the regular and the "aerated" products.

(f) For products that have no reference amount listed in paragraph (b) of this section for the unprepared or the prepared form of the product and that consist of two or more foods packaged and presented to be consumed together (e.g., peanut putter and jelly, cracker and cheese pack, pancakes and syrup, cake and frosting), the reference amount for the combined product shall be determined using the following rules:

(1) The reference amount for the combined product must be the reference amount, as established in paragraph (b) of this section, for the ingredient that is represented as the main ingredient ( e.g., peanut butter, pancakes, cake) plus proportioned amounts of all minor ingredients.

(2) If the reference amounts are in compatible units, the weights or volumes must be summed ( e.g., the reference amount for equal volumes of peanut butter and jelly for which peanut butter is represented as the main ingredient would be 4 tablespoons (tbsp) (2 tbsp peanut butter plus 2 tbsp jelly)). If the reference amounts are in incompatible units, all amounts must be converted to weights and summed, e.g., the reference amount for pancakes and syrup would be 110 g (the reference amount for pancakes) plus the weight of the proportioned amount of syrup.

(g) The reference amounts set forth in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section shall be used in determining whether a product meets the criteria for nutrient content claims, such as "low calorie," and for health claims. If the serving size declared on the product label differs from the reference amount, and the product meets the criteria for the claim only on the basis of the reference amount, the claim shall be followed by a statement that sets forth the basis on which the claim is made. That statement shall include the reference amount as it appears in paragraph (b) of this section followed, in parenthesis, by the amount in common household measure if the reference amount is expressed in measures other than common household measures (e.g., for a beverage, "Very low sodium, 35 mg or less per 240 mL (8 fl oz)").

(h) The Commissioner of Food and Drugs, either on his or her own initiative or in response to a petition submitted pursuant to part 10 of this chapter, may issue a proposal to establish or amend a reference amount in paragraph (b) of this section. A petition to establish or amend a reference amount shall include:

(1) Objective of the petition

(2) A description of the product

(3) A complete sample product label including nutrition label, using the format established by regulation

(4) A description of the form (e.g., dry mix, frozen dough) in which the product will be marketed

(5) The intended dietary uses of the product with the major use identified (e.g., milk as a beverage and chips as a snack)

(6) If the intended use is primarily as an ingredient in other foods, list of foods or food categories in which the product will be used as an ingredient with information on the prioritization of the use

(7) The population group for which the product will be offered for use (e.g., infants, children under 4 years of age)

(8) The names of the most closely related products (or in the case of foods for special dietary use and imitation or substitute foods, the names of the products for which they are offered as substitutes)

(9) The suggested reference amount (the amount of edible portion of food as consumed, excluding bone, seed, shell, or other inedible components) for the population group for which the product is intended with full description of the methodology and procedures that were used to determine the suggested reference amount. In determining the reference amount, general principles and factors in paragraph (a) of this section should be followed.

(10) The suggested reference amount shall be expressed in metric units. Reference amounts for fluids shall be expressed in milliliters. Reference amounts for other foods shall be expressed in grams except when common household units such as cups, tablespoons, and teaspoons, are more appropriate or are more likely to promote uniformity in serving sizes declared on product labels. For example, common household measures would be more appropriate if products within the same category differ substantially in density, such as frozen desserts.

(i) In expressing the reference amounts in milliliters, the following rules shall be followed:

(A) For volumes greater than 30 milliliters (mL), the volume shall be expressed in multiples of 30 mL.

(B) For volumes less than 30 mL, the volume shall be expressed in milliliters equivalent to a whole number of teaspoons or 1 tbsp, i.e., 5, 10, or 15 mL.

(ii) In expressing the reference amounts in grams, the following general rules shall be followed:

(A) For quantities greater than 10 g, the quantity shall be expressed in the nearest 5-g increment.

(B) For quantities less than 10 g, exact gram weights shall be used.

(11) A petition to create a new subcategory of food with its own reference amount shall include the following additional information:

(i) Data that demonstrate that the new subcategory of food will be consumed in amounts that differ enough from the reference amount for the parent category to warrant a separate reference amount. Data must include sample size and the mean, standard deviation, median, and modal consumed amount per eating occasion for the petitioned product and for other products in the category, excluding the petitioned product. All data must be derived from the same survey data.

(ii) Documentation supporting the difference in dietary usage and product characteristics that affect the consumption size that distinguishes the petitioned product from the rest of the products in the category.

(12) A claim for categorical exclusion under § 25.30 or § 25.32 of this chapter or an environmental assessment under § 25.40 of this chapter, and

(13) In conducting research to collect or process food consumption data in support of the petition, the following general guidelines should be followed.

(i) Sampled population selected should be representative of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the target population group for which the food is intended.

(ii) Sample size (i.e., number of eaters) should be large enough to give reliable estimates for customarily consumed amounts.

(iii) The study protocol should identify potential biases and describe how potential biases are controlled for or, if not possible to control, how they affect interpretation of results.


Column: He went to pick up his daughter. He ended up debating anti-maskers

Blaine D. Pope didn’t plan to go viral. He had just planned to go home and make a peanut butter sandwich.

But that was before the mild-mannered professor arrived at his daughter’s school in Santa Monica one afternoon this week and found a group of anti-maskers waving signs and shouting conspiracy theories at parents and students.

You know the type. Those who claim — falsely — that COVID-19 is “the same as the flu” and that anyone who wears a mask or agrees to get vaccinated has been “indoctrinated” by a mysterious “they.”

Most people in Pope’s position would’ve just driven away, maybe rolling down the window to shout a curse word or two in the process, but still following some internet elder’s sage advice to not feed the trolls.

Pope, who has been teaching business at Cal State Northridge, but has a background working in public health, didn’t drive off. Instead, for nearly 20 minutes, he and his 11-year-old daughter had what can only be described as an extraordinarily calm and even earnest conversation with a couple of men intent on casting doubt on everything from the death toll of COVID-19 to the existence of climate change.

“Quite honestly, if it hadn’t been for my daughter’s request” to get a closer look at the demonstrators, Pope told me later, “I would’ve just gone the heck back home and made a sandwich.”

But he stayed, gamely asking one man carrying a “Masks R A Compliance Check” sign: “What’s the real issue here?”

“Freedom, brother,” the man told Pope, who is Black. Then he waved a hand over his pale, bare face, indicating where a mask would go. “This is a form of slavery.”

That this civil conversation, captured on video by a reporter with the Beverly Hills Courier, was abnormal enough to go viral on Twitter says a lot about just how normal the divisions in this country have become. It also speaks to the abnormal efforts that will be required to persuade more Americans — particularly the COVID-19 skeptics among us — to get vaccinated.

In short, truly bringing the pandemic to a close will require at least some of us with brains to argue — I’m sorry, have calm and reasoned conversations — with willful idiots.

L.A. County is in the yellow tier of the state’s COVID recovery plan, allowing for the broadest reopening of the economy since the pandemic began.

I realize that might not seem necessary right now. After all, hospitalizations and deaths due to COVID-19 are nearing record lows across California. And this week, public health officials cleared Los Angeles County to reopen much of its economy, loosening restrictions on bars, movie theaters and amusement parks. Many other counties are on the verge of doing the same.

Meanwhile, nationally, about 45% of the population has received at least one dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. In California, the rate is even higher, at just above 50%.

And, according to a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, cases of COVID-19 are likely to drop dramatically by the end of July and will continue to fall afterward, even as the coronavirus continues to circulate — and new variants emerge — with horrifyingly deadly consequences in other parts of the world.

But lost in all of the happy talk of an American reopening is the caveat that, in order for it to become a permanent reality, people have to keep wearing masks in close quarters and, most important, more people have to get vaccinated.

President Biden said this week that he wants 70% of American adults to have received at least one dose by the Fourth of July. But vaccination rates continue to fall and tens of millions of Americans say they are still wary of getting the jab, meaning the task now is convincing the uninterested, the hesitant and the flat-out resistant.


25 Healthy Cookbooks That R.D.s Can’t Stop Recommending

On their journeys to discovering what it means to eat healthy, registered dietitians often rely on healthy cookbooks to help light their way. Of course, R.D.s will be the first ones to tell you that healthy eating doesn't have a clean or simple definition, and neither do so-called healthy cookbooks. Healthy eating can mean so many different things to so many different people, and R.D.s use healthy cookbooks the same way we all do: as a way to learn and be inspired to incorporate healthy eating practices into our lives.

That's why we asked some of our favorite R.D.s to share with us the cookbooks they turn to again and again. These 25 healthy cookbooks perfectly capture some of the many different ways people eat healthy, and the fact that there's no one right way to do it in the first place. From the plant-based to the budget focused, they'll show you that, more often than not, it's not about the “diet”—and that, in some cases, the healthiest thing about eating is the joy it brings you. There's a cookbook for you in this list below.

All products featured on SELF are independently selected by our editors. If you buy something through our retail links, we may earn an affiliate commission.


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I consider all recipes just a starting point so I made some changes. We wanted more sauce so I doubled everything except the shrimp. I also added sliced carrots, onions and celery to bulk it up with some veggies - which made more sauce really necessary. I used fresh rosemary because I had it, and a splash of beer from another recipe. It needed some sweetness so I added a Tbl or so of tomato paste which also helps thicken it. Once you have the sauce the right flavor and consistency, add the shrimp and it is over quickly. Made t his last week and it was so delicious my husband demanded it again this week!

A really good quick recipe. Instead of adding the unpeeled shrimp to the sauce, I peeled them and made a quick shrimp stock with the shrimp shells--simmered for 20 minutes or so.I used the stock instead of the water in the recipe, which I think added flavor and made it easier to eat.

A great dish with a little kick-- a warm french baguette accompanies this well to dip in the left over sauce. I always try out new recipes when I have company (probably a little risky!) but this one is fool proof! Also to make it a little more healthy, I cut the butter by half and added a little water. It keeps the same flavor but with fewer calories.

My mother made this for me for my birthday dinner more than 10 years ago-- I loved it so much that I requested it as a "special" dinner any chance that I had. Years later I wanted to make a special dinner for who is now my fiance-- I got this recipe from my mom and I couldn't believe how easy it was! And all this time I thought my mom was slaving away. He was impressed (as I was when my mom first made it) and now it's MY little secret. This is definitely a favorite recipe that I have made many, many times. Generally I serve it with crusty bread, fresh home made cole slaw and a chardonnay or pinot noir.

I'm not a big shrimp fan, but my husband is. I decided to try this recipe since I love spicy Cajun food. I liked it so much that now I make it for myself for lunch or dinner even if my husband is not in the mood for shrimp. I imagine it's great with crusty bread, but it's equally tasty with brown rice. Take a tip from a previous reviewer and buy the deveined, frozen shrimp. It makes the recipe a breeze!

This is a fabulous recipe! It was so easy to make and the sauce is very flavorful. To save work, buy the shrimp already deveined. And when you think of it, other than the shrimp, you probably have all of the ingredients on hand (just make sure your rosemary isn't too old).

Quick and easy. A great lunch with some red wine and crusty bread

This was very easy to make and delicious. The only thing that puzzles me is why we are instructed to reduce the sauce to 1/2 cup when the ingredients don't call for that much liquid. I would definitely make again because the sauce is tasty over rice. Since this is basically a butter sauce, you could substitute any herbs you like in place of the rosemary.

this is good, i have been making a similar dish for many years. i use 2 sticks of butter per 3 lb of shrimp, add about 5 cloves of garlic, minced,some lemon juice, cayenne pepper to taste also a few dashes of liquid shrimp boil 7 worcestershire sauce ( we dont like much) also some fresh parsley. the garlic is a must(by the way, i sautee the garlic & add all other ingredients & simmer for a few minutes. pour over the washed shrimp early in the day to let them soak up the flavors. wonderful dish. everyone i serve it too has a fit over it.

This is great and easy! Serve crusty bread to dip in the sauce. An indulgence, but worth it. I've shared the recipe.

There is a restaurant in Los Angeles, CA that serves this dish for $13.95 per person. This recipe is great and fool proof. It's the same as the restaurant but not as expensive for a party of four. Try it and you will understand why many Californians travel far out of their area to partake of this delight.

This is a simple and fantastic recipe for the shrimp lover. We sometimes use 1/2 the Worcestershire and make up the difference with PickaPepper for an extra kick. Coarse ground black pepper is also preferable. Whenever we've served it to company there's always requests for the recipe.

This is a more complex version of a simple shrimp dish. The basic version is for every pound of shrimp (size matters not), melt one stick of butter, 2 tablespoons of Wort. sauce, and 1.5 tbls of black pepper (less if pepper-shy). Put shrimp in a glass casserole dish. Pour sauce over them, add some lemon juice, and bake in oven for 15 minutes (or until done) at 375. Serve with good French bread and you have an amazing, simple, rather unhealthy dish.

This dish was terrible! After one taste, the rest went down the drain. I may have overlooked an igredient, but I don't think so. Either way, I'll never make it again.

I have doubled, tripled and quadrupled this recipe for company with superb results each time. Everyone is suprised how easy it is and asks for the recipe.

My family enjoyed this dish. They said it made a great change from the ordinary. It is good enough to serve to company. It also freezes.

I thought this recipe was absolutely delicious! We doubled the recipe and spooned it over a small dish of angel hair pasta, fantastic!

The only real criticism I have is that because the shrimp is still in the shell, it doesn't soak up enough of the sauce. The next time I cook prepare this I plan to marinate the shrimp in the sauce (sans butter of course because I haven't heated anything yet) for at least half an hour.

Had this recipe (made with whole peeled and deveined shrimp)served in ramekins on a large plate with a salad of field greens with a light vinaigrette and of course the French bread for soaking up the wonderful shrimp sauce. Excellent!

Great for a quick lunch. Just perfect for two!

An interesting and unique taste, great finger food. Ya gotta like pepper!


Dr. Praeger’s Sensible Foods ® Heirloom Bean Veggie Burgers boast a collection of beans, lentils, veggies and herbs for a delicious and well-rounded meal with only 130 calories per serving. In addition to be being gluten free, Heirloom Bean Veggie Burgers are also soy free, vegan, and Non-GMO Project verified.

Soy Free
8 Types of Veggies
140 Calories

Ingredients

Cooked Bean Mix (Water, Adzuki Beans, Pinto Beans, Great White Northern Beans, Black Eyed Peas, Red Kidney Beans, Cranberry Beans), Cooked Red Lentils (Red Lentils, Water), Cremini Mushrooms, Tomatoes, Cooked Brown Rice (Brown Rice, Water), Expeller Pressed Canola Oil, Potato Flakes, Carrots, Celery, Onions, Kale, Arrowroot Powder, Spices, Sea Salt

Dr. Praeger's offers 17 varieties of veggie burgers.

Click each name to learn more.
  • Cauliflower Veggie Burgers
  • California Veggie Burgers
  • Black Bean Quinoa Veggie Burgers
  • Classic Veggie Burgers
  • Kale Veggie Burgers
  • Chipotle Black Bean Veggie Burgers
  • Mushroom Risotto Veggie Burgers
  • Super Greens Veggie Burgers
  • Gluten Free California Veggie Burgers
  • Heirloom Bean Veggie Burgers
  • Korean Veggie Burgers
  • Tex Mex Veggie Burgers
  • Asian Veggie Burgers
  • Sweet Heat Beet Veggie Burgers
  • All American Veggie Burgers
  • Perfect Burger
  • Perfect Turk’y Burger
  • All Veggie Burgers
  • Our Food

Now We're Cookin'

See below for similar recipes. Find more on our Recipe Page.

Cooking Instructions

Keep frozen prior to use. For food safety cook to an internal temperature of 165°F. Do not leave appliances unattended as cooking times may vary.

Oven/Toaster Oven

Preheat oven / toaster oven to bake at 450°F. Place burger on an ungreased baking pan. Bake approximately 7 minutes until browned. Carefully flip and bake an additional 5 minutes, until heated through and well browned.

Skillet

Preheat a non-stick pan over medium heat. Cook burger approximately 7 minutes until browned. Carefully flip and cook an additional 5 minutes until heated through and well browned.

Microwave

Remove plastic wrapping and place one burger on a microwave safe plate. Cook on high for 1½ minutes. Carefully flip and cook 1 additional minute. Product should be hot throughout but will not brown. Based on 1100 watt microwave oven.

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Don't be afraid to go over 100 calories.

Shutterstock

You may see trendy snacks on the shelf that promise healthy eating with just 100 calories a pack. Guess what, you don't have to snack that way! In fact, it will just leave you feeling hungry.

"Don't be afraid of snacks that provide over 100 calories! So many people have this food rule ingrained in their mind that snacks should be under 100 calories, however that's not true," says Colleen Christensen, RD. "Many times we need more than that to sustain us to our next meal. Start to pay more attention to your hunger level and you'll begin to understand more of the size of snacks your body needs. The hungrier you are, the larger your snack likely needs to be and if you shoot for a self-imposed 100 calorie 'limit' you're likely to be left feeling 'hangry' and frustrated."


WE&rsquoD LOVE TO KNOW!

To create happy customers, we really listen to them. Thank you for taking the time to let us know what you think!

99 Federal Road
Danbury, CT 06811
(203) 790-8030
Memorial Day Weekend Hours:
Friday 5/28 – 7a – 10p (All Service Bars close at 10pm)
Saturday 5/29 – 7a – 10p (All Service Bars close at 10pm)
Sunday 5/30 – 7a – 9p (All Service Bars close at 9pm)
Monday 5/31 – 7a – 9p (Normal closing time for all Service Bars)

Please Note Temporary Updated Hours for The Following Service Bars:
Meat: Everyday 7-8
Fish: Everyday 7-8
Deli: Everyday 7-8
Photo Cakes: Everyday 7-8
Ice Cream: Everyday 7-9
Coffee: Everyday 7-8
BBQ, Pizza: Everyday 7-8

Full Danbury location details

1897 Front Street,
East Meadow, NY 11554
(516) 394-9001
Memorial Day Weekend Hours:
Saturday 5/29 7am - 9pm
Sunday 5/30 7am - 9pm
Monday 6/1 7am - 9pm

Full East Meadow location details

261 Airport Plaza
Farmingdale, NY 11735
(516) 962-8210
Memorial Day Weekend Hours:
Saturday 5/29 7am - 9pm
Sunday 5/30 7am - 9pm
Monday 6/1 7am - 9pm

Full Farmingdale location details

3475 Berlin Turnpike
Newington, CT 06111
(860) 760-8100
Memorial Day Weekend Hours:
Friday 5/28 7am - 10pm
Saturday 5/29 7am - 10pm
Sunday 5/30 7am - 9pm
Monday 6/1 7am - 9pm
Open 7 DAYS - 8am to 9pm

Full Newington location details

100 Westport Avenue
Norwalk, CT 06851
(203) 847-7214
Memorial Day Weekend Hours:
Friday 5/28 6am - 9pm
Saturday 5/29 6am - 9pm
Sunday 5/30 6am - 9pm
Monday 6/1 6am - 9pm
OPEN 7 DAYS - 7am-9pm

Senior Hours 6am-7am OPEN 7 DAYS

Garden Shop - Everyday 7am-7pm

Temporary Updated Hours for The Following Service Bars:
Meat- Sun-Fri 7-5, Sat 7-6
Fish- Everyday 7-6
Deli- Everyday 7-6
Ice Cream- Everyday 9-6
Coffee- Everyday 7-6

Full Norwalk location details

Paramus Park Mall
700 Paramus Park
Paramus, NJ 07652
(201) 649-0888
Memorial Day Weekend Hours:
Friday 5/28 7am - 9pm
Saturday 5/29 7am - 9pm
Sunday 5/30 7am - 9pm
Monday 6/1 7am - 9pm

Senior Hours 7am-8am
If you are under 60 or in good health, please wait until regular store opening times listed below before coming to shop at Stew’s.

Please Note Temporary Updated Hours for The Following Service Bars:
Meat- Everyday 8-8
Fish- Everyday 8-8
Deli- Everyday 8-8
Photo Cakes: Everyday 8-7
Ice Cream: Everyday 8-9
Coffee: Everyday 8-9
BBQ: Everyday11-8
Pizza: Everyday 11-8
Burger Barn – Monday-Thursday 11-3, Friday-Sunday 11-7


Wine Store
Monday - Saturday 9am-9pm
Sunday Noon-9pm

Full Paramus location details

1 Stew Leonard Drive
Yonkers, NY 10710
(914) 375-4700
Memorial Day Weekend Hours:
Friday 5/28 7am - 9pm
Saturday 5/29 7am - 9pm
Sunday 5/30 7am - 9pm
Monday 6/1 7am - 9pm

Please Note Temporary Updated Hours for The Following Service Bars:
Deli- Everyday 8-9
Seafood- Everyday 8-9
Meat- Everyday 8-9
Photo Cakes: Everyday 8-9
Ice Cream: Everyday 8-9

Full Yonkers location details


99 Federal Road
Danbury, CT 06811
(203) 790-8030
Memorial Day Weekend Hours:
Friday 5/28 – 7a – 10p (All Service Bars close at 10pm)
Saturday 5/29 – 7a – 10p (All Service Bars close at 10pm)
Sunday 5/30 – 7a – 9p (All Service Bars close at 9pm)
Monday 5/31 – 7a – 9p (Normal closing time for all Service Bars)

Please Note Temporary Updated Hours for The Following Service Bars:
Meat: Everyday 7-8
Fish: Everyday 7-8
Deli: Everyday 7-8
Photo Cakes: Everyday 7-8
Ice Cream: Everyday 7-9
Coffee: Everyday 7-8
BBQ, Pizza: Everyday 7-8

Full Danbury location details

1897 Front Street,
East Meadow, NY 11554
(516) 394-9001
Memorial Day Weekend Hours:
Saturday 5/29 7am - 9pm
Sunday 5/30 7am - 9pm
Monday 6/1 7am - 9pm

Full East Meadow location details

261 Airport Plaza
Farmingdale, NY 11735
(516) 962-8210
Memorial Day Weekend Hours:
Saturday 5/29 7am - 9pm
Sunday 5/30 7am - 9pm
Monday 6/1 7am - 9pm

Full Farmingdale location details

3475 Berlin Turnpike
Newington, CT 06111
(860) 760-8100
Memorial Day Weekend Hours:
Friday 5/28 7am - 10pm
Saturday 5/29 7am - 10pm
Sunday 5/30 7am - 9pm
Monday 6/1 7am - 9pm
Open 7 DAYS - 8am to 9pm

Full Newington location details

100 Westport Avenue
Norwalk, CT 06851
(203) 847-7214
Memorial Day Weekend Hours:
Friday 5/28 6am - 9pm
Saturday 5/29 6am - 9pm
Sunday 5/30 6am - 9pm
Monday 6/1 6am - 9pm
OPEN 7 DAYS - 7am-9pm

Senior Hours 6am-7am OPEN 7 DAYS

Garden Shop - Everyday 7am-7pm

Temporary Updated Hours for The Following Service Bars:
Meat- Sun-Fri 7-5, Sat 7-6
Fish- Everyday 7-6
Deli- Everyday 7-6
Ice Cream- Everyday 9-6
Coffee- Everyday 7-6

Full Norwalk location details

Paramus Park Mall
700 Paramus Park
Paramus, NJ 07652
(201) 649-0888
Memorial Day Weekend Hours:
Friday 5/28 7am - 9pm
Saturday 5/29 7am - 9pm
Sunday 5/30 7am - 9pm
Monday 6/1 7am - 9pm

Senior Hours 7am-8am
If you are under 60 or in good health, please wait until regular store opening times listed below before coming to shop at Stew’s.

Please Note Temporary Updated Hours for The Following Service Bars:
Meat- Everyday 8-8
Fish- Everyday 8-8
Deli- Everyday 8-8
Photo Cakes: Everyday 8-7
Ice Cream: Everyday 8-9
Coffee: Everyday 8-9
BBQ: Everyday11-8
Pizza: Everyday 11-8
Burger Barn – Monday-Thursday 11-3, Friday-Sunday 11-7


Wine Store
Monday - Saturday 9am-9pm
Sunday Noon-9pm

Full Paramus location details

1 Stew Leonard Drive
Yonkers, NY 10710
(914) 375-4700
Memorial Day Weekend Hours:
Friday 5/28 7am - 9pm
Saturday 5/29 7am - 9pm
Sunday 5/30 7am - 9pm
Monday 6/1 7am - 9pm

Please Note Temporary Updated Hours for The Following Service Bars:
Deli- Everyday 8-9
Seafood- Everyday 8-9
Meat- Everyday 8-9
Photo Cakes: Everyday 8-9
Ice Cream: Everyday 8-9

Full Yonkers location details

&ldquoAt Stew Leonard&rsquos, we follow a principle so important that we etched it into a three-ton granite rock! Rule 1: The customer is always right! Rule 2: If the customer is ever wrong, reread Rule 1!&rdquo


Don’t move to Texas if you don’t know the rules

If you’re moving to Texas, there are a few things you need to know before you get here.

1. Everything really is bigger in Texas

Image: Jack Keene/Flickr (Big Tex at Fair Park in Dallas, Texas)

Don’t be alarmed if some things seem obnoxiously large. We have a lot of space to fill up.

2. “Don’t Mess with Texas” isn’t a suggestion

And it applies to more than littering. Everything in our state is just totally awesome, so this shouldn’t be a problem.

3. The answer to the Shake Shack or In-N-Out debate… is “Whataburger”

You don’t need special sauce or hand-spun milkshakes when you have mustard, pickles, lettuce, onions and spicy ketchup for the french fries.

4. Football isn’t a sport, it’s a religion

At least there’s one thing we agree with Tim Tebow about.

5. This is a homecoming mum

Make sure yours is regulation weight, or you’ll be in the same spot as Tom Brady.

6. There’s more than just Tabasco and Pace

Image: Heather Barnett/SheKnows (This is my personal salsa and hot sauce collection, not a restaurant’s.)

Salsa and hot sauce are the only things we’re willing to admit other states and countries do as well as we do.

7. If you’re moving to a small town, this may be your only restaurant

But that’s OK. I recommend the Steak Finger Basket with a Peanut Buster Parfait for dessert.

8. You might need to learn how to behave around horses

It’s legal for horses to be ridden on most roads in Texas, but this vehicle has a mind of its own, so make sure you know how to drive when they’re around.

9. There are fences everywhere

Texans value their privacy and can be pretty territorial. Don’t take it personally. We just like to decide when we want to be friendly with the neighbors.

10. That’s not a walking rock, it’s an armadillo

The armadillo is our official state mammal, and they may look alien, but they’re really sweet and super-cute. And that’s not the only reason to avoid running over them. In fact, unless your car’s heavy or you hit them just right, they have a pretty good chance of survival with all that natural body armor. Your car probably won’t fare as well.

11. Learn to love deer

They’re everywhere. The first day of deer season is practically a holiday.

12. Try to think of your daily commute like a NASCAR race

Image: rutlo/Flickr (A slow day on the Highway Five Interchange, aka the Mixmaster, in Dallas, Texas.)

We go fast, change lanes a lot (usually to get around Oklahoma drivers) and lose all respect for personal “boundaries” when we’re behind the wheel (read: we will tailgate you if you don’t speed up). Just go with the flow of traffic, and try to remember as much as humanly possible that slow traffic should stay to the right. But as convenient as it may seem to go 85 when you have to drive four hours, you might hold off on that until you learn where the speed traps are.

13. We love our pickup trucks

Even the cities are full of pickups, whether the driver needs a pickup or not. Be forewarned that they’re the most aggressive of the NASCAR-type drivers, and just because you think a pickup is supposed to be a workhorse doesn’t mean the driver won’t lose it if you scratch or dent it.

14. We flip out when it snows (even a little)

Even the slightest hint that it will snow tomorrow will send us in a mad panic to the grocery store to stock up on food and provisions. Chances are, all the schools will close or be delayed, and you may not have to go to work. The whole area will pretty much shut down over a few inches of snow or ice.

15. Hearing the word “tornado” doesn’t send us into a tizzy for a reason

Tornadoes are, of course, serious business, and they’re far from unique to Texas, but a lot of transplants don’t understand enough to either avoid panicking or doing something stupid, like trying to get a glimpse. A tornado watch just means conditions are right for a tornado. There’s no reason to panic. Think of it like ovulation. Just because you’re ovulating doesn’t mean you’ll get pregnant. A tornado warning means one has hit the ground. In that case, scramble to safety ASAP. If you want to see a tornado, go to YouTube.

16. Everything’s a “coke”

If you’re out to eat and order a Coke, don’t be surprised if someone asks you what kind. “Customer: Can I have a coke? Waiter: What kind? Customer: Dr. Pepper” is a totally normal conversation here.

17. Tex-Mex is too authentic

In Texas, we serve Tex-Mex. If you want authentic Mexican food, Mexico is only a few hours away, and some Mexican restaurants here do serve both. Not only is Tex-Mex perfectly authentic Tex-Mex, but Texas was once part of Mexico, meaning it’s more of a Mexican regional cuisine. When we won our independence, they didn’t take their food back (thank you, Mexico!).

18. Get used to Tex-planations

When you get here, you’ll need to learn words and phrases like “y’all,” but that’s not it. “Fixin’ to” means about to, “over yonder” means over in the distance… well, maybe you should just take a look at this guide to Southern speaking.

19. You’ve gotta hit the Sweetwater Rattlesnake Roundup

Image: Andy Reine/Flickr (The Sweetwater Rattlesnake Roundup, shown here in 2013, attracts thousands every year.)

The rattlesnake roundup in Sweetwater is the largest one in the world. It was created in 1958 as a clever way to encourage people to help control the population of this deadly snake, but that doesn’t mean it isn’t fun. You can participate in hunts, watch or participate in beauty or eating contests, check out the vendors selling snakeskin products, learn to skin and clean a rattlesnake and even taste one. Don’t worry, they basically taste like whitefish.

20. You don’t know what proud is until you’ve met a Texan

The reason we’re so proud is because we live in the best place in the world. Ask anyone here, and they’ll tell you.